Types and Pathophysiology of Pain

Types and Pathophysiology of Pain

Typesand Pathophysiology of Pain

Typesand Pathophysiology of Pain

Thereare three types of pain acute, chronic, and referred pain, which isbased on where in a person’s body it is felt. Acute pain isconsidered to be short-lived, and it usually manifests itself in waysthat is easily be observed and described. Chronic pain refers to thattype of pain, which lasts more than four months. The pain, accordingto Huether &amp McCance (2012), is more subjective, and can easilynot be described to be an acute pain. Referred pain is different fromthe two, and is perceived at a specific part of the body, which is ata location different from the actual site of the pain stimulus (Blows&amp Blows, 2012). For example, ischemia, which is as a result ofheart attack, is felt in the neck rather than the chest. Theirsimilarities are that they all have the point of intersection and itall start in the neurological structure.

Acute,chronic, and referred pain can be felt singly or at the same time.The pathophysiology of acute pain is neurological. In theneurological system, the pain is mostly sharp. The pain is mostly anindication of an infection. Its initiation in the body system is whenperipheral receptors that are triggered (Huether &amp McCance,2012). The cerebral centers play a role with the interpretation ofpain to the neurological system. On the other hand, the chronic painis continual. The pain involves the nerves, and its nociceptivetransmission is an important element of pathophysiological frameworkof the pain. The nerve fibers ensure the persistence of pain, and areirreversible (Nelson, 2013). In referred pain, sympathetic fibers isthe evident mechanism, which follows visceral afferent. In turn, theframework is formed, which triggers pain sensations in theneurological system.

Prostatitisin the pathology of pain is defined to be an increase in the numberof the inflammatory cells around the prostate gland. AcuteProstatitis signs and symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis includechills and fever, flu-like feeling, the urgency to urinatefrequently, pain during urination, and the inability to completelyclear the bladder, with blood on the urine. The person alsoexperience pain when ejaculating. On the other hand, chronicbacterial prostatitis include a burning sensation or pain duringurination, urgent and frequency when urinating, pain in the pelvicand prostate region and a slight fever.

Genderand age are factors that affect pain in terms of its pathophysiology,prescription of treatment, and diagnosis. Women are known toexperience pain, especially in areas that are rarely felt in men.Such body parts include the nipples, the base of their abdomen inregard to their monthly periods, and when giving birth. Pain is alsodiagnosed based on age. Old men and women are diagnosed differentconsidering acute pain, for example, may be felt different inchildren than in older people. According to Canavero &amp Bonicalzi(2011), experimental and clinical research indicate that pain isassessed, perceived, and treatment quite differently, especially whena person’s sex and age is put into consideration. Older men andwomen have less tolerance to pain and are less likely to report anacute pain. The pathophysiology of pain is also dependent on, whichsection of the neurological system is responsible for pain. Diagnosisis likely to be different when different types of pain are factoredin.

References

Blows,W. T., &amp Blows, W. T. (2012). Thebiological basis of clinical observations.Oxon: Routledge.

Canavero,S., &amp Bonicalzi, V. (2011). CentralPain Syndrome: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Huether,S. E., &amp McCance, K. L. (2012). Understandingpathophysiology.St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier.

Nelson,D. (2013). TheMystery of Pain.London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.