The PIC-R Perspective of “the psychology of criminal conduct.”

The PIC-R Perspective of “the psychology of criminal conduct.”

ThePIC-R Perspective of &quotthe psychology of criminal conduct.&quot

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ThePIC-R Perspective of &quotthe psychology of criminal conduct.&quot

Thechapter four of the book focuses on the psychological actions thatare taken immediately when carrying out an analysis of the generalpersonality and social learning which is abbreviated as GPSCL and istaken as the perspective on the criminal conduct. The main pointdiscussed in this chapter is that in the general personality andsocial learning, there are immediate casual importance that areassigned to construct a clear definition of situations that arefavorable to numerous criminal acts. According to the informationprovided in this chapter, there are theorists who speak aboutself-efficacy beliefs, algebraic solution, personal choice, whileothers talk about behavioral intentions. On the other hand, theauthor affirms that individuals working in the criminal courts mayuse phrases such as the balance of costs and rewards. Consequently,the author argues that there is an impressive and predictive validitywhen assessing self-efficacy and behavioral intentions that vary inmany criminal situations. As a result, the chapter indicates thatthere are many models that are based on self-regulation making themdominant pieces of personalities, cognitive psychology, socialpsychology, and neuropsychology. For instance, in chapter four, theauthor gives an example that the general cognitive behavior andpersonality in the social learning approach is PIC-R (personal,interpersonal, and community reinforcement) perspective that is usedin the deviant manners. On the same hand, in the chapter, the authoroutlines the main principles in the PIC-R perspective that is used todefine the factors that are used to encourage or discourage criminalactivities. Additionally, there are elements that are incorporated insociological criminologists to motivate, call, and control thejustice theories. This phenomenon is used to an emphasis on controlelements and motivational because they are based on the nature of thecriminal activities and consequences that follow after committing acrime.

Theauthor, therefore, affirms that PIC-R is paramount to draw upon theradical behaviorism because of the fundamental principles tagged toit. Moreover, the factors are very crucial when measuring thevariations in the human conducts which PIC-R the variation isdetected in the immediate situation of action. In short, this chapteris about the general perspective of one`s personality, cognitivebehavior, and cognitive, social learning as approaches that are usedto determine the personality in an individual. Consequently, thechapter four of the book talks about personal, interpersonal, andcommunity-reinforcement perspectives.

Additionally,the author tries to connect between the psychology of criminalbehaviors, cognitive behavioral, general personality, and theperspectives used in cognitive, social learning. The chapter is,therefore, an overview of the various theoretical contexts that arebased on the psychology of criminal acts (Andrews &amp Bonta, 2010).Based on the conclusion that was made by Andrews and Bonta it ispossible to predict the criminal behaviors and develop strategies toprevent and rehabilitate the criminal acts. This means that thechapter is a summary of the major issues that influence or hindersthe understanding of the criminal conduct.

  1. Evaluation of the chapter

Thechapter four that was developed by Andrews and Bonta (2010) deeplydiscusses the general personality and cognitive social learningperspective and fused four theories: the social bonding,psychodynamics, strain perspective and differential association asused in psychology of criminal conduct. Additionally, the authors goahead to discuss the thirteen principles to define their personality,interpersonal behaviors, and community-reinforcement perspectives todescribe the chapter in depth. According to the information providedin chapter four of the book, the thirteen principles have been usedto give a summary of the main concept applied in criminal conduct.For these reasons, the authors argue that every form of behavior isconsidered to be antecedent and, as a result, controls and mediatethe costs of the rewards and involved contingencies. For thesereasons, we can presume that control in the criminal acts can bemodified using CBT through avoidance, recognition, and coping withthe situation. Moreover, the reward costs are aspects that are basedon the Skinners Operant theory (Blackburn,1993).

Onthe other hand, according to Albert Bandura’s theory, it isaffirmed that PIC-R perspective can be used in criminalinvestigations because of its greatest relevance in criminalconducts. Consequently, I am convinced that cognitive theory isconsidered to be the father of the behaviorist activities in criminalconducts. As a result, we can conclude that factors such asbidirectional influences that exist between environment and theindividuals, moral disengagement through personal rewards, andobservational learning influences criminal conducts.

Consequently,it can be encouraging to develop self-regulations towards a therapythat can be used to model the criminal behaviors and related therapy(Andrews,Bonta, &amp Wormith, 2011).Critically speaking, Andrews and Bonta classified criminal conductsand risks behaviors and risks into groups such as antisocial personalpattern (high group), family, parenting styles and achievement(moderate group), and distress and low social economic (low group)without defining the exact responsibility assigned to these groups.On the same hand, the authors used the chapter to recommend highlythe massive application of the CBT criterion when dealing withcriminal offenders to achieve anti-recidivism benefits. This isbecause the previous researchers has argues that low-risk criminalsconducts are not easy to assess based on whether the risk categorizedas lower recidivism or as a natural tendency in the criminalcorrection group or because the cause is handled under CBT.

Forthis reason, after reading chapter four of the book by Andrews andBonta (2010), I am convinced that cognitive theory used in thepsychological, criminal conduct is used to keep with the mostessential and influential theories on the PIC-R perspective. Forexample, Freud developed a psychodynamic theory to monitor thebehaviors in both normal and criminal human beings. The authorrealized that human beings who are criminals behaved in a manner thatthey form part of the criminal continuum behaviors as also shown byAndrews and Bonta in their work. In conclusion, I think the primarymessage that is passed by Andrews and Bonta is that in conjunctionwith the antisocial attributes, differentiated criminal acts, andweak self-control among the people who are not criminals influencecriminal conducts. However, in support of this chapter, I think thatCBT can be used to improve self-control when s are reducing the levelof recidivism and settings among the formers.

Reference

Andrews,D. A., &amp Bonta, J. (2010). Thepsychology of criminal conduct.Routledge.

Andrews,D. A., Bonta, J., &amp Wormith, J. S. (2011). THERISK-NEED-RESPONSIVITY (RNR) MODEL Does Adding the Good Lives ModelContribute to Effective Crime Prevention?. CriminalJustice and Behavior,38(7),735-755.

Blackburn,R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct. CRIMINALBEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH,3,202-202.