Psychology Diabetes

Psychology Diabetes

PSYCHOLOGY 8

Psychology

Diabetes

Problemsexperienced by an Individual and families

Non-adherenceTheproblems of adherence are common to the people with diabetes thusmaking the control of glycemic to be hard to attain. Diabetes as achronic disease is very hard to manage. Though the care regimen is abit complex, the patients having better diabetes self-care behaviorscan attain optimal control of glycemic. Nevertheless, most of thepatient do not achieve this and thus continue to suffer complicationsas a result. The diabetes health providers understands that id theirpatient adhered to the recommendation of the treatment, they couldhave avoided complications(Turner &amp Kelly, 2000)

StigmatizationMostof the patient may experience or perceive stigma though they may bereluctant to talk about it. Most of the patient may feel that theyare insufficient as a result of the sickness and may consider to beleft alone. On the other hand, the family of the patient may notwholly accept the individual as a normal person and this may amountto stigma. The after math of diabetes is often severe where manyindividuals may think they are on the blink of death and thus fail toappreciate their current situation.

StressDiabeteshas an emotional effect on the family members.The anxiety arising from long term health of an individual is a bitcommon. A family may suffer from emotional stress when one familymember is diagnosed with diabetes. The spouses may be stressed withfeeling of medication and planning, the children may feel anxiousabout the routine change in the family. Diabetes often adds afinancial restrain to an individual where the extra cost may be quiteoverwhelming(Turner &amp Kelly, 2000).

DepressionDepressionhas been shown to exist more to people with diabetes when compared tothe general population. The symptom of it alone affects 30 percent ofpeople while 10 percent of them experiences major depression. As aresult, a mood that is depressed lead to poorer mental and physicalfunctioning thus making blood management of glucose to be hard, thereare related problems to diabetes, family problems, low quality lifeand higher health care(Turner &amp Kelly, 2000).

Psychologicaltheory

Beingdiabetic changes the lifestyle of a person and brings a myriad ofemotions and feelings that can be hard to deal with or express.Understanding the feelings becomes more aware of how to deal with

SelfRegulation theoryThis theory focuses on the personal model or individualrepresentation of diabetes as the key determinant to their emotionaland behavioral response to the illness. Many adolescents and adultshave demonstrated that the people with diverse set of beliefs forillness that are not fit in the medical view and that the beliefs areproximal and robust determinants of the well being of a person(Skinner, Cradock, Arundel, &amp Graham, 2003)

DualProcess Theory Itis used to guide the process of addressing individual currentcomprehension of diabetes and education to ensure adherence.

SelfDetermination theory Thetheory focuses on the difference between autonomous and controlledmotivation. Controlled motivation means performing things fromextrinsic reasons such as receiving a contingent award or makingothers happy. Autonomous motivation means doing things for oneselfwhich is predictive of a successful glycemic control, weight loss orself care.

Sociallearning theory Thetheory does focus on the perception of an individual and theirability to follow and enact behavior through the action plans. Inpsychological terms, it is self efficacy and a consistent predictorof self care(Skinner, Cradock, Arundel, &amp Graham, 2003).

Sourceof Diabetes and treatment

Diabetesis a metabolism disorder. The digestive tract breaks the starches andsugar into glucose which enters the blood stream. With much help ofthe insulin hormone, the cells absorb the glucose and convert it toenergy. Diabetes will develop when the body fails to make sufficientinsulin or fails to sufficiently use the insulin or both. Pancreasmakes the insulin where it is made up of cells referred to as islets.The beta cells in the islets make insulin and release to the body.When the body fails to produce sufficient insulin, it fails torespond to the insulin that is present leading to diabetes(Ltd, 2003).

Treatment

Physicalactivity is imperative for preventing complications and controllingdiabetes such as high blood sugar and heart diseases. It brings bloodsugar under control for type 2 diabetes. For the type 2, one may needmedication to control the glucose levels in the blood. Individualwith type 1 are required to take insulin through injection

Issuesof Diabetes in Literature

Inthe past, only one promising approach existed in curing the patientwith type 1 diabetes. Presently, there are various possibilities thatis related to cure and prevention of type 1 and type 2. In theprevious research, the research centered towards cure focused on celltransplant in the pancreas that produces insulin, part of pancreas orthe islet cells. For the type 1, the immune system of the body turnsitself on and destroys the islet cells. Consequently, the body willnot produce the required insulin to escort the glucose from the foodwe it when need into the body muscles or other organs.

Presently,ways are being focused to find ways to block it. There are diversestudies on immunology in intervention of type 1 diabetes. Islet cellregeneration is another important effort to produce insulin againthrough the use of embryonic or stem cells. The cause of type 2diabetes is ongoing. The main theory is the inflammation. Theresearches at Joslin have pursued the idea from the low level tomulti center clinic trials taking the anti-inflammatory drugs to seeif there is incidence of type 2 diabetes (George,2015).

Additionally,the diabetes investigators are working on understanding how the isletcell fail to function in type 2 diabetes, the genetic basis, why insome people the cells compensate by making more insulin where otherscannot keep with the increasing demand. The goal is to improve themechanism of compensation to prevent type 2 diabetes

Currentresearch

Therehas been breakthrough in preventing and understanding diabetescomplications. Many years of high levels of glucose can consequentlydamage the nerves and blood vessels in the kidneys, eyes and otherorgans. The research for the past 25 years has led to the developmentof a potential new drug called RBX- ruboxistaurin which minimizes theoccurrence of the moderate loss of vision to diabetes and promise totreat kidney diseases and heart failure. The researchers whospecialize in the study of metabolism are looking into thesignificance of exercise on improving the glucose use throughout thebody which might also have an effect of prevention of CVD diseases(George, 2015).

Psychologistsaid towards the family in coping with diabetes

Disablingchronic illness challenges the effectiveness of coping. Diabetes is achronic disease that has adverse effect to the patient and the largefamily. Many families suffer psychological after realizing that oneof their family members is sick. Faced with the increasing cases ofdiabetes, the primary care physician and psychologist must havestrategies that assets accurately the adaptation of the patient andfacilitates effective coping. The knowledge of the patient baselinecoping skills and high suspicion incidence for the factors affectingresilience are fundamental you assess accurately and achieve optimalpatient coping

Thepatient tends to exhibit adaptation in regard to their personalitytraits. Recognizing the traits increases the likelihood that thepatient will respond maximally to the care management. The failure torespond and recognize the characteristics risks the conflict with thepatient who feels mistreated and misunderstood. A patient who isdependent and who ask a lot of questions and is often afraid that youcan’t find them worthy can be offered regular but brief sessions.An obsessive patient who is detailed oriented and insistent and isalways angry when they cannot control their illness can be offereddetailed explanations of what they are suffering from and providingthem with collaborative choices.

Thepsychologist provide direct service to the patient through promotingtreatment and health behaviors of psychological problems and presentconsultation to the medical team on incorporating psychologicalprinciple to the patient. The patient can also be assisted inadhering treatment where the sole objective of the diabetic treatmentis to ensure that the adhere to the meal plan. Psychologists can bevaluable source in identifying the maladaptive stress reactions andhelping the patients to develop effective and useful methods ofcoping. They also assist the family functioning of the patient sinceit is related to communication stress and subclinical distress thatis related to diabetes (Harris &amp Lustman,1998)

References

Delamater,A. (2006, April). DiabetesJournal.Retrieved from American Diabetes Association:http://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/content/24/2/71.full

Falcone,T., Dickstein, L., Sieke, E. H., &amp Franco, K. N. (2015). Copingwith Chronic Medical Illness.Retrieved from CleveLand Clinic:http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/psychiatry-psychology/coping-with-chronic-medical-illness/Default.htm

George.(2015, September 16). DiabetesResearch: Advancing Toward a Cure.Retrieved from Joslin Diabetes Center:http://www.joslin.org/info/Diabetes_Research_Advancing_Toward_a_Cure.html

Harris,M., &amp Lustman, P. (1998). ThePsychologist in Diabetes Care.Retrieved September 17, 2015, from Clinical Diabetes:http://journal.diabetes.org/clinicaldiabetes/v16n21998/PG91.htm

Ltd,M. I. (2003). Diabetes:Symptoms, Causes and Treatments.Retrieved from MNT: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/diabetes/

Skinner,C., Cradock, S., Arundel, F., &amp Graham, W. (2003). FourTheories and a Philosophy: Self-Management Education for IndividualsNewly Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes.Retrieved from The diabetes spectrum:http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/16/2/75.full

Turner,J., &amp Kelly, B. (2000, February). Emotionaldimensions of chronic disease.Retrieved from NCBI:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1070773/