PICO and Evidence Based

PICO and Evidence Based

PICOand Evidence Based


PICOand Evidence Based

Step1: PICO terms and Question

In most obese, at risk of obesity and overweight children between age5-years, what is the effect of prevention or early treatmentinterventions compared to the various control interventions on weightloss or weight maintenance?

Anurse through the evidence research can easily find the potentialsolution for the problem stated above.

Step2: Identification of the problem.

Themajor problem is children with overweight obesity. In the schoolenvironment, there is a ban on the campus junk food however, there isnot much the school has done to control the contents of the lunchboxes the students bring from home (Hesketh et al., 2005). Manyfactors can be argued to reduce the general effectiveness ofinterventions for obesity particularly in the primary care including,lack of trained staff, time pressure, and cultural barriers. Whatneed to be changed in nursing is to ensure that any form ofintervention used is multifactorial even though there has been thelack of practical approaches that are available to the practitioners.Obesity is considered a complex problem that is difficult to tacklein the primary care. It is believed to be one of the complex diseasesthat cause various health complications. The practice issue to beresearched is the use of prevention and the early treatment ofobesity as the best solution to the problem. The type ofperson-centered approach will evidently offer an important tool inthe management of obesity (Swinburn et al., 2005). My practice is aclinical officer working at the district general hospital.

Step3: The identification of the practice issues

The identification of the practice came as a result of the fact thatobesity endemic has been growing rapidly making it difficult tocombat because, its causes are intertwined into the social,governmental and environmental fabric. As a result of this, it wasevident that there were very may patients who were hospitalized as aresult of obesity-related diseases. According to Hesketh et al.(2005), the obesity rates are predicted to raise even the more toapproximately 47 percent for men and about 36 percent of women by theear 2025.

Step4: Evidence that must be gathered

Accordingto Klein et al. (2007), the decisions concerning the prevention ofobesity are very complex and difficult to handle hence the need tohave a complex strategy. There is the need to have a population-basedapproach to be successful in preventing obesity. The need to workaround the evidence gaps and the various limitations of using theevidence hierarchies applying to the medical treatment for thepurposes of assessing the population-based preventive interventionshave been seriously faced by developers o obesity prevention. Thereis the need to gather environmental, cultural, behavioral, andeconomic evidence, which are the main contributors to the risk ofobesity (Kropsk et al., 2008).

Step5: Terms to be used to make sure that the Search is wide

Variousterms will be used to make sure that the search is wide enough inobtaining the relevant information. They will include, healthyeating, obesity, weight control, the physical activities (Kropski etal., 2008). The main database that will be searched will includeMedline Plus website of the National Institute of Health, the 2008Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Additionally, Centers fordisease control and prevention, and the Dietary Guidelines forAmericans, 2010 will also be used. To narrow down the search, theresearch will focus specifically on the journals published betweenthe years 2010 to 2015.


Hesketh,K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., &amp Williams, J. (2005).Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative studyof parent and child perceptions in Australia. Healthpromotion international,20(1),19-26.

Klein,S., Allison, D. B., Heymsfield, S. B., Kelley, D. E., Leibel, R. L.,Nonas, C., &amp Kahn, R. (2007). Waist circumference andcardiometabolic risk: a consensus statement from shaping America`shealth: Association for Weight Management and Obesity PreventionSwinburn, B., Gill, T., &amp Kumanyika, S. (2005). Obesityprevention: a proposed framework for translating evidence intoaction. Obesityreviews,6(1),23-33.

Kropski,J. A., Keckley, P. H., &amp Jensen, G. L. (2008). School‐basedobesity prevention programs: an evidence‐basedreview. Obesity,16(5),1009-1018.