Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Pedagogyof the Oppressed

In1968, “” was first published by PauloFreire in the Portuguese language before Myra Ramos translated itinto English. Paulo published this book in a bid to reach out tothose individuals who are considered the “oppressed” in thesociety. In fact, it is salient to note that he borrowed ideas fromthe Marxist class concept. In addition to oppression, the bookincorporates a wide variety of subjects such as education anddialogue, among others (Freire,9).For this paper, there is a reflection regarding the third and fourthchapters of the book.

Thethird chapter of the book focuses on dialogue and its necessityconcerning human interactions. Through the book, there is an insightthat dialogue is not a natural tool of communication therefore,pressure and force should not be involved in an interaction. Forsuccessful interaction, individuals should incorporate their combinedcritical thoughts (Freire,89).The author outlines that education is a lost cause without thepresence of communication. It is necessary to observe that learningfrom one another is a form of education which requires communication.Freire suggests that there is a connection between lack ofcommunication and egoism that focuses more on individualistic thansocietal needs. In this chapter, the author also focuses on humanbeings, their awareness, and limits. When people are aware ofthemselves, they overcome the limiting situations in life. The authorsuggests that familiarizing oneself with the limitations makes iteasy for individuals to draft various ideas, notions, and concepts(Freire,95).

Moreover,Freire focuses on the different perceptions upheld by individualsregarding the world. The chapter clearly depicts that there is arelationship between human beings, and the world. This relationshipincorporates generative themes that are absent characteristics inpeople. Also, these themes play a great role in improving theawareness of individuals concerning reality. For an individual tofully understand the generative themes it is necessary for them tobe familiar with the concept of human beings, and their realities.Through the chapter, there is knowledge on the ways in which thesethemes bring about relationships between people. The presence of thegenerative themes results in the hope of finding common realities,education systems, and awareness (Freire,103).

Theauthor also outlines that it is important to investigate these themesregarding education rather than psychology. He suggests that thereexists a relationship between students, and educators that ought tobe determined through investigation of generative themes. As thechapter comes to an end, Freire revisits the concept ofcommunication, and its importance in the lives of people. He outlinesthat communication is a necessity for the success of both education,and investigation of themes. Additionally notions of education andresearch play a significant role in realizing the correct schoolsystem (Freire,114).

Onthe other hand, chapter four revolves around the relationship betweenoppressors, the oppressed, and the liberators. Also, it is impossiblefor the relationship of the oppressed, and oppressors to appearsimilar as that of liberators. The oppressors rob the oppressed offtheir transformation by dominating them, and treating them assubmissive (Freire,126).The author outlines that the battle between those two partiesrevolves around social status. The oppressors are afraid that theoppressed will surpass them, and this would tamper with their status.As opposed to the use of dialogue, the oppressors employanti-dialogic means such as division and manipulation to keep theoppressed at bay. Through those means, the oppressors maintaindominance and can control lives of the oppressed. Moreover, thechapter also delineates the ways in which oppressors use beliefs tocapture the oppressed. The dominators impose their beliefs upon theoppressed in which they continue to remain in total control (Freire,134).

Liberatorsemploy dialogic methods and aim to bring about revolutionsconcerning the presence of oppression. Their foremost focus is totransform the oppressed, and salvage them from domination. Unlikedominators, they incorporate methods peaceful methods to assist theoppressed in undergoing a transformation. However, it should berealized that the oppressed also play a great role in theirconversion. They are required to exercise cooperation with theliberators to achieve their freedom. By having common interests, theoppressed unite, and this makes it easier for them to be liberated.Additionally, Friere suggests that when the people receive communion,they are close to achieving freedom, liberation and transformation.Consequently, there is the urgent need of people to practice unity toobtain communion that will result in their liberation and conversion(Freire,152).

Insummation, the author suggests that the oppressed should be open tointegration of culture rather than imposition. Unlike oppressors, theliberators focus on instilling positive beliefs in the lives of thosewho are oppressed. As the chapter comes to a close, Freire outlinesthat cooperation of the oppressed greatly influences their chances ofliberation. When the people adhere to regulations of liberators, theyare bound to achieve transformation (Freire,2000).


Freire,P. &nbspPedagogyof the oppressed.Oxford:Bloomsbury Academic, 2000. Print