Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disorders

Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disorders

Pathophysiologyof Cardiovascular Disorders

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Pathophysiologyof Cardiovascular Disorders

Pathophysiologygenerally refers to the functional changes of body organs andprocesses due to injury or disease. Pathophysiology is very common incardiovascular disorders such as the coronary artery disease, stroke,congenital heart disease and aneurysm. The most commonpathophysiology of these cardiovascular diseases is atherosclerosis.Atherosclerosis is often characterized by the building up of plaque,which ultimately hardens and narrows the arterial walls therebyimpeding blood flow (NHLB, 2015). This pathophysiology can result inany artery in the human body since it involves the accumulation ofplaque in the arteries. Atherosclerosis is caused by several factorssuch as high levels of cholesterol in the blood, chronic diseasessuch as kidney infections, smoking, insulin resistance, obesity,overweight, physical inactivity, age, genetics and unhealthy diet. Anincrease in age, for instance, increases chances of atherosclerosissince plaque accumulation is significant to enable manifestation ofsigns and symptoms at an advanced age owing togenetic or lifestylefactors (Swirski&amp Nahrendorf, 2013).

Alterationsof cardiovascular disorders that manifest similar characteristicsinclude peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, coronaryartery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure. Coronary arterydisease is the most common alteration and develops due to theaccumulation of plaque in the arteries narrowing the width of thearteries and making them rigid (Montalescotet al., 2013). Hypertension is one of the causes of coronary artery disease as itleads to the damaging of inner arterial walls due to the highpressure. The damaged arterial walls facilitate the accumulation ofplaque on the arterial walls thereby narrowing the blood vessels, acondition that ultimately causes coronary artery disease (Cooperet al., 2010).The CAD works to prevent blood from flowing freely into the heartthat can lead to a heart attack or sudden death (Heuschet al., 2014).

References

Cooper,R. M., Gong, Y., Handberg, E. M., Bavry, A. A., Denardo, S. J.,Bakris, G. L., &amp Pepine, C. J. (2010). Tight blood pressurecontrol and cardiovascular outcomes among hypertensive patients withdiabetes and coronary artery disease. Jama,304(1),61-68.

Heusch,G., Libby, P., Gersh, B., Yellon, D., Böhm, M., Lopaschuk, G., &ampOpie, L. (2014). Cardiovascular remodelling in coronary arterydisease and heart failure. TheLancet,383(9932),1933-1943.

Montalescot,G., Sechtem, U., Achenbach, S., Andreotti, F., Arden, C., Budaj, A.,… &amp Valgimigli, M. (2013). 2013 ESC guidelines on themanagement of stable coronary artery disease. Europeanheart journal,34(38),2949-3003.

NHLB,. (2015).,US Department of Health and Human Services. ,What isAtherosclerosis?. Retrieved on September 19 2015 from&lthttp://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis&gt

Swirski,F. K., &amp Nahrendorf, M. (2013). Leukocyte behavior inatherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Science,339(6116),161-166.