Parkinson`s disease

Parkinson`s disease

Parkinson’sdisease

Parkinson’sdisease

Parkinson’sdisease refers to a progressive disorder found in the nervous system,which affects movement. The disease develops gradually, and sometimesit starts with a less noticeable tremor in a person’s hand. As muchas the tremor may be well-known sign of the disorder, the disorderalso causes slowness and stiffness in a person’s movement. Thehistory of the disease goes back to 1817, when the then Britishapothecary, James Parkinson first published an essay in regard to the“Shaking Palsy” (McNamara, 2011). Dr. Parkinson wrote about acertain “involuntary tremulous motion”, with lessened feel ofmuscular power in those parts without action. First-forward fourdecades later, McNamara (2011) noted that Jean-Martin Charcot addedto the study more rigidity to what was Dr. Parkinson’s excellentdescription of the disorder, and added “Parkinson’s disease” tothe syndrome.

Signsand symptoms to Parkinson’s disease may vary from one individual tothe other. According to Simuni &amp Pahwa (2009), early signs couldbe mild, and may go unnoticed. The symptoms often start with onesection of person’s body, and may remain worse on that section,even when the symptoms begin to have an effect on both sections ofthe body. The signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease includetremors, slow movement (bradykinesia), rigid muscles, and loss ofautomatic body movements, changes in speech, and changes in writing.

Withslow and rigid movements, the disorder tend to reduce a person’sability to move, conduct simple tasks, and one may find it difficultto get out of bed. The symptoms may also include impaired balance andposture. A person may become stooped or he or she may experiencebalance problems due to the disorder. The symptoms have noted abovemay include difficulties in having speech (Jankovic &amp Tolosa,2007). An individual diagnosed with the disease may find talk slowlyor fast, hesitate or slur when talking.

TheParkinson’s disease cause is still not known. However, Simuni &ampPahwa (2009) studied that current thinking revolves around major genemutations, which plays a smaller part. The risk factors studied havealso identified cigarette smoking to be the cause of the disease.Other epidemiological factors include coffee and tea consumption,drinking alcohol. According to McNamara (2011), a family tree,depression, tremors, and head injury is highly related to the causeof Parkinson’s disease. Additionally, the disease is also thoughtto be caused by the interaction of an individual with susceptiblegenes, which causes the disease.

Thepathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease involves interaction ofenvironmental factors and host susceptibility. However, few cases arealso linked with genetic factors. The symptoms are known to worsenover a period of time, which in turn result in more cells of the bodyto worsen. At a later stage of the disease, cortical areas of brainparts are affected (Jankovic &amp Tolosa, 2007). Damage to thesebrain parts result in multi-faceted changes in pathophysiology, whichin turn cause impairment, not only to neuropsychological but also tocognitive systems of a person’s body.

References

Jankovic,J., &amp Tolosa, E. (2007). Parkinson`sdisease and movement disorders.Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.

McNamara,P. (2011). Thecognitive neuropsychiatry of .Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Simuni,T., &amp Pahwa, R. (2009). Parkinson`sdisease.Oxford: Oxford University Press.