Nursing Research

Nursing Research




First,the responded were a bit limited because the students under thenursing program were the only bones involved, thus limiting theinformation about the actual aspect of the palliative care innursing. There was a good amount of questionnaires distributed andcollected at three hundred and ninety-two, with three hundred andsixty-three valid questionnaires that were able to be used for theanalysis. The hospital incorporated in the study was frommultispecialty tertiary care, an aspect that left the out theexperience about many other hospitals in the region. The outcome froma single hospital might be biased because other hospitals might havepalliative resources while others may not. The nurses in the hospitalmay express their ability in palliative education while on otherhospitals may not be adequate. Although, to get a better-roundedsurvey, the researchers should have surveyed not just one hospital,but multiple surrounding hospitals near and far to obtain a largersample size to conduct this quantitative study done. The studyincluded bio-psychosocial factors related to the nursing staff, whichincluded age, gender, work experience, work setting, education,nurses` attitudes and beliefs about palliative care (Prem et al.,2012). The article also suggests that inadequacies in pain managementmay not solely be related to the myth and bias that originates fromthe general attitudes and beliefs, but may actually be a reflectionof inadequate knowledge about pain (Prem et al, 2012). While I agreewith the response of this classmate, the critique leaves out vitalaspects of the study that involves the analysis of the datacollected. The critique needs to have incorporated the process ofanalyzing data since this provides insight into the validity of theresearch.


Thestudy presented an in-adequate number of respondents. Therefore, thisin turn limited the actual responses of the general perception tobelow average. Generalizing with such the outcome with such, a smallnumber of the respondents prove ineffective. The study was only doneover seven days that could also influence the results and did notstate a baseline for how much cranberry juice these patients hadconsumed before the study was done. The study also stated that thesepatients were on low doses of Coumadin and the findings may have beendifferent if the patients were taking higher doses of warfarin or ifthey were receiving higher doses of cranberry juice.

Whatis taught to patients is diet consistency so if these patients hadpreviously been drinking cranberry juice prior to the study then thatcould have interacted with these results because their warfarindosage was already based off of their current diet. The futureeffects of the INR are not stated in the study, thus making the studyless detailed. All the patients were stable on their dosing ofwarfarin prior and that if the study had been on a variety of stableversus unstable patient`s INRs could have varied more. I believe moreresearch needs to be done in order to conclude that cranberry juiceat 240mls twice daily is not going to affect patient`s INRs. Apartfrom the inadequate respondents number used in this study, I agreewith the classmate since the critical parts of the critique areincluded and followed.


Thestudy was effective, and data collection method was appropriate. Thenumber of respondents used is very reasonable since the effects andoutcome are well explained by the patients who have undergone thearthroplasty. Another benefits concept during the research isdividing the group into two. Patients in the two groups each werethose of two experienced surgeons who used the same prosthesis andanesthesia on each patient in the study, therefore, enhancing theeffective of the study. The goniometer swivel was used to calculateROM, VAS was used to measure pain intensity, and modified SF-36 wasused to evaluate the quality of life. The same nurse conducted eachof these scheduled follow-up evaluations. Thus, creating a vividresearch that was detailed enough to provide effective information onthe study. As this study was not able to use a randomized control, itdid have the potential for bias. The researchers did attempt toeliminate bias potential and variables as thoroughly as possible. Onespecific suggestion would be to implement a specific post-hospitalexercise for the entire study group. However, the use of the CPM didnot induce additional pain. Ultimately, the study found thataggressive CPM use during hospitalization does not provide additionalbenefits (Chen et al., 2012). This answer forms one of theelaborately done works since it covers the collection of data,analysis of the collected data, and the implication of the studyfindings in an elaborate manner. The study also involved anundertaking of a follow-up process vital in the validation of thefindings.


Theuse of both ANNOVA and MANCOVA helps to analyze the success of theEducational Intervention on the New-Born nurses. The study researchincorporated 13 hospitals from the Midwestern and East Coast states,an aspect that provides a wide range of experience from manyrespondents. Therefore, this made the outcome of the researchapplicable to the world health care. The use of two different typesof questionnaires in the research enhanced the detailed informationgathered during the research. It would be fascinating to see afollow-up study to ascertain if this essentially changed the way thenurses deliver breastfeeding education.

Theresearch was effective in isolating the attitudes and knowledge aboutthe breastfeeding. Alternatively, a follow up on how the nurses wouldfeel about this type of education for more topics and if they reallyfound it helpful. However, working in a self-paced module, it canlimit the nurses in asking questions and getting real-time answers.The answerers given may limit the reality of the situationtherefore, inadequacy in the information provided in the study mighthinder the actuality of what is in the ground among the nurses. Theresearch was more applicable to those areas where the respondents’hospitals were chosen thus leaving some regions outside and withouta clear picture of how the aspect of breastfeeding is perceived.Concluding, the research is useful, and the programs used in theresearch are applicable to the current world of healthcare in helpingthose mothers in breastfeeding. The program enhances the knowledgeand attitude towards breastfeeding, therefore, making the aspecteasier and important to all nurses who are affected in the sector ofbreastfeeding. While this answer covers the analysis of dataprocesses used in the study as well as the number of hospitalsinvolved, the target population is not given. However, theimplications are well articulated.


Bernaix,L., Beaman, M., Schmidt, C., Harris, J., &amp Miller, L. (2010).Success of an Educational Intervention on Maternal/Newborn Nurses`Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitudes Bernaix, L. W., Beaman, M. L.,Schmidt, C. A., Harris, J. K., and Miller, L. M. EducationalIntervention on Maternal/Newborn Nurses`.. JOGNN: Journal ofObstetric, Gynecologic &amp Neonatal Nursing, 39(6), 658-666 9p.doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2010.01184.x

Chen,L., Chen, C., Lin, S., Chien, S., Su, J. Y., Huang, C., &amp …Huang, H. (2013). Aggressive continuous passive motion exercise doesnot improve knee range of motion after total knee arthroplasty.Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(3/4), 389-394.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04106.x

Mellen,C. K., Ford, M., &amp Rindone, J. P. (2010). Effect of high-dosecranberry juice on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 70(1), 139-142.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03674.x

Prem,V., Jaykumar, S., Karvannan, H., Karthikababu, S., Kumar, S., Syed,N., &amp Sisodia, V. (2012). Study of Nurses` Knowledge aboutPalliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey. Retrievedfrom

Nursing Research

Nursing Research



Classmate 1

Accordingto Dougherty (2013), theNursing to patient’s ratio is an appropriate field to conductresearch. However, such a tricky and complex problem lacks an easysolution. Hertel (2012) agrees that the nursing profession requiressupport to regulation to ensure the safest nurse to patient ratios.There are rules and regulations that support various ratios that aresufficient for specific hospital departments. The problem is worthresearching due to the varying literature. There is literature thatappropriate nursing to patient ratios are beneficial to patient’shealth and the nurses job satisfaction. In contrast, there isliterature against the establishment of appropriate ratios becausethey do not have any beneficial outcomes (Burns,&amp Grove, 2003).

Thereare various legislations on nursing that provide guidance on the mostappropriate ratios between hospitals patients and the availablenurses. The registered nurse safe act of 2011 has six co-sponsors.The Act requires all hospitals that participate to have in place anurse staffing committee. The aim is to ensure that they implementand oversee a hospital customized staffing plan that addresses thenurses concerns. Specifically the committee ensures that the hospitalat any time has nurse staffing levels that address a specificcharacteristic of patients and the various hospital units to ensurethe delivery of patient care that is safe and of quality. Thenational nursing shortage reform and patient advocacy Act providesthe specific ratios of nurses to patients. They are 1:1 for traumaand emergency units or those that provide one additional assistant. Aratio of 1:2 is most appropriate for critical care units and 1:3 foremergency rooms, pediatrics departments, step-down, telemetry laborand delivery and ante partum departments. A ration of 1:4 is providedfor medical surgery, psychiatric, intermediate care nursery and otherspecial cares. A ratio of 1:6 for well baby nurseries and postpartumwhile 1:5 is for rehabilitation and the skilled nursing departments(InternationalCouncil of Nurses, 2010)

Classmate 2

Theproblem with nutritional support for critically ill patients is anideal area for possible research. Intensive care unit Patients areconsidered to be critically ill. Their major characteristic is theassociated hyper-metabolism and a greater nutrient needs (Hertel,2012).

Furtherresearch indicated that the prenatal care given to cancer patientsfor 7 to 10 days before they undergo surgery decreases theircomplications by 10%. Enteral nutrition is the major nutritiondelivery for intensive care that seeks to enhance its benefits on thegastrointestinal tract and the associated immune system(International Council of Nurses, 2010).

Inthe past 30 to 40 years, advances towards the provision ofnutritional assistance available to critically ill patients werecreated by Enteral and Parenteral formulations of nutrients. Despitethe wide use of nutrition-based therapy and a rich literature on thesubject, a majority of areas that deal with nutritional supportremain unveiled. The lack of substantive discussion on the topic isdue to the lack of proper randomized controlled trials. Theassessment of the patient’s state of nutrition or their nutritionaldeficit to identify the quantity of nutritional support required isthe first step to the development of the case (Burns, &amp Grove,2003).

Theavailable literature indicates that the general loss of the patient’sbody mass should be regularly assessed to establish the catabolicprocesses that cause the loss in muscles from protein deficits. There should be established, an indicator for monitoring purposes onthe initial nutritional requirement, intake, and the net result. Forthe critically ill patients, edema formation is a frequentoccurrence. It makes the use of patients weigh difficult toimplement. In such situations, it is practical to employ the use ofthe body mass index composed of the weight divided by the height inmeters squared. The index properly indicates the nutritional state ofthe patient. The gap in research requires research that iscontrolled, and there should be a definite procedure that can berepeated to ensure its provability (Dougherty,2013).

Classmate 3Themandatory overtime for nurses is an excellent area of research. Theresults should provide a solution to the overworking of nurse’sproblem that has resulted to a risk of adverse events. It is acompromise to the safety of the patients and increases the risks topersonal well being and safety. The fatigue causes posttraumaticdisorder to 25% of nurses in the emergency department (AmericanNurses Association, 2015).Thecomplexity of health care has evolved into adverse events caused viaunintended human error. The various errors include giving the wrongmedication and identification of patients. The staff shortagesprovide short time breaks and increase the margin of error. Theresults of the research should aim at providing solutions such as theengagement and recognition of nurses and the effect towards theirsatisfaction. It is important to aim at checking the nurses’turnover and the reasons given behind their exit (Bae, &amp Yoon,2014).Theresearch ought to identify the outcome of various suggested solutionsto the overworking problems. They include the solution to increasethe number of nurses by approaching the community with aim ofadvocating for nursing as a profession, and providing scholarshipsand educational reimbursements for nurses to obtain higher education.Other solutions worth evaluation include the possibility ofoutsourcing the nurses to meet the shortage requirements (AmericanNurses Association, 2015). Theresearch should aim at identifying the various ways to making thenursing jobs more attractive to candidates. They include the effectsof increasing the remuneration, possibilities for creating flexibleschedules and sharing of jobs. In addition, it is important toevaluate the effects of including the career development activitiesin the design of nursing jobs (Bae, &amp Yoon,2014).Classmate4 Theresearch on falls is quite an area of interest since they are acommon cause for majority of pediatric injuries. Most of the injurieslead the patient into the emergency department. Specifically,children are proven to frequently yield to falls. The research aim toidentify the various prevention programmes can positively contributeto the education of hospitals and the community (Pohl et al., 2015). Inaddition, the study can identify the various required coordinationskills and the limitations of patients that experience a series offalls. It should contribute to raise the awareness and educate thenursing staff on the importance of creating and maintaining a safeenvironment for all fall patients. Specifically, the research canidentify standard safety measures for all patients. Safety standardsmay cover various areas where a sudden fall can occur (Pohl et al.,2015).First,it should identify the appropriate beds where the patients arerequired to be nursed including children younger than two years ofage. The results should orient the patients and the variouscaregivers such as family and nurses to the rooms and hospital wards.It should specify the required condition of the beds such as theposition and the application of breaks. The research should provideadvice on appropriate required clothing and footwear to the patientsto use an ambulance. The research would contribute effectively byidentifying the various tools for identifying patients with a highrisk of falls (Pohl et al., 2015). In conclusion, the results shouldentail the various tools that educate families and nurses that havecontact with fall patients. An effective research on falls shoulddevelop the various strategies and management plans to take care andreduce the risk for high-risk patients (Pohl et al., 2015).


AmericanNurses Association. (2015). TopIssues for Staff Nurses.Retrieved from

Bae,S., &amp Yoon, J. (2014). Impact of States` Nurse Work HourRegulations on Overtime Practices and Work Hours among RegisteredNurses. HealthServices Research,49(5), 1638. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12179

Burns,N., &amp Grove, S. (2003). Understandingnursing research(3rd ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders.

Dougherty,M. (2013). Open Peer Review. NursingResearch,213-213.

George,V., &amp Haag-Heitman, B. (2011). Nursing peer review: The manager’srole. Journalof Nursing Management,254-259.

Gopee,N. (2001). The role of peer assessment and peer review in nursing.BritishJournal of Nursing Br J Nursing,115-121

Hertel,R. (2012). Regulating patient staffing: Acomplex issue.Med-Surg

InternationalCouncil of Nurses. (2010).Understanding nursing researchRetrieved September 22, 2015.

Pohl,P., Sandlund, M., Ahlgren, C., Bergvall-Kåreborn, B., Lundin-Olsson,L., &amp Wikman, A. M. (2015). Fall Risk Awareness and SafetyPrecautions Taken by Older Community-Dwelling

Ramphal,M. (2011.). Peer Review. AJN,American Journal of Nursing,63-67