Lesson plan commentary

Lesson plan commentary

Lessonplan commentary

Lessonplan commentary

Alesson plan is identified as the instructors road map of whatstudents need to learn and how it the learning and teaching processshall be conducted. It is the detailed description of the individuallesson that a teacher plans to teach on a given day which acts as aguide to the teacher. The paper will seek to describe the essentialliteracy strategies and the best way in which a teacher can use tobuild each other and also help students in making connections betweenthe essential literacy and the related skills that supports the useof the strategies in meaningful contexts. The ability to familiarizewith the students in different learning segments from strugglingstudents to the gifted students. The study will highlight what to dothrough the use of the personal, cultural and community assets henceproviding an informative lesson plan commentary that provides abetter understanding of the students

Thecentral focus of the plan

Themain central emphasis that should be placed on the mentioned classesis the ability to improve the student’s informational writingskills through the provision of required literacy help. The skillsprovided to the students are used in enhancing the knowledge of thepupils which regards all things that concern animals and theircharacters since the students are required to use the skills acquiredin the school to learn about the animals of their own preference.With the learning of the skills students shall be able to haveinteractive skills as they all wok in groups and also tend to expressthemselves in a convenient manner hence making other to understandtheir opinions on different issues. Additionally, the focus of thestudy will be interested in making the students to have the abilityto carry out research and then be able to express themselves in anargumentative way through writing and oral skills.

Individualand group works will be used to boost the already existing and taughtliteracy strategies. Group work is paramount in personal writingsince it helps students is sharing their understanding and hencehaving a better writing skills. An extensive interaction with otherstudents while discussions the available issues provides the studentswith a variety of ways which is learnt from fellow students in thegroups they are assigned to. Secondly, the process also helps inaddressing the essential literacy strategy and a forum for knowledgesharing that acts as a way of both self and collective groupimprovement. It is clear that some students tend to understand thingsbetter when said or done by their fellow students as opposed to whena teacher says them (Bergmann,&amp Sams, 2012).&nbsp

Theplan involves pre structured manner with which the teacher will beable to contemplate and reevaluate the variety of new points theywill come across. First it is important to ensure that the studentsknow what are required to do and what they are working on. This willbe made familiar to them through defining the difficult words andphrases hence giving them a good background and foundation. Secondly,the research methods that are best suited foot the students will beshown to the students as a way of preparing them for the research.Groups shall be formed where students will be required to participatein the group assigned, in the groups the students will be required toapply the vocabulary. An assessment on the use of the phrases and theapplication of the research material will be done to investigate theextent on the lesson effect on their skills improvement (Phipps,2015).

Studentsbackground information to inform teaching

Itis common that in a class student have different abilities in theclass in question there are two students who are under the IEPscommonly called the individualized education program. These studentsare related to speech only. Another student in the class is anEnglish language learner ELL. Lastly, about three students in theclass are struggling readers. The understanding of the class helps inestablishing which student need what help hence attending to theindividual student need which will be a convenient way of achievingthe ultimate segment focus (White,2005).

Theclass is made of students from all social background ranging fromwealthy-middle class and from poor families. Other students are fromfoster parents, relatives and other single parents. The majority ofthe class is composed of students with the college ambitions whileother would like to join the armed forces after their graduation fromhigh school. With that information then the process of designing thelearning strategies can be satisfied in a more efficient manner.

Literacylearning support

Ateacher needs to be familiar with the students personal level needs,this will help in mapping out the proper strategy of improving thestudent’s skills. The understanding of the students helps them tocome in contact with their daily live s and the community possession.Different students will need different teaching material based ontheir needs and their backgrounds. A unique equal environment helpsthe students in learning as they will fell to be on an equal levelwith other since no one has an advantage ((Bergmann,&amp Sams, 2012).&nbsp

Theprocess of making the students to work in groups that the teacherwill assign the students makes it easy to mix students from differentbackgrounds and hence avoid them choosing their best friends andstudents from similar backgrounds. This will make them open up toother and have a healthy environment. However, since every child hastheir own abilities, it is important to set different targetdepending on the different abilities of the students at an individuallevel (White,2005).

Literacydevelopment through language support

Languageis used as a means through which one can inform other on given issue,language uses vocabularies to describe things. In this learning typethe vocabularies used are defined with the respect to animals and allthings about animals. Therefore, the language used should involve theprocess of informing the readers and different things that rangesfrom the writing skills to the use of animals and sciencedescriptions (Phipps,2015). Through the use of the informational writing, both in the second andthe third planned lessons the students will be required to writetheir learned essay on things learned from the class. The students inthe lesson three will be required to write the learnt issues informof an essay where they shall be expected to show their informationalwriting and research techniques skills. The writing process will beinstrumental in enabling them to improve their skills since they willbe writing the papers in an individual capacity. From the essayswritten the evaluation of the skills of the students on their usageof language in an appropriate manner will be investigated as theywrite (Bergmann,&amp Sams, 2012).&nbsp

Theability to use the vocabularies learnt in the class will be anadditional demand in their writing about animal context. Thestudents will also be required to understand the correct meaning of agiven certain vocabularies. These skills will also enable them tomake contributions in the class discussion where they are expected touse the key vocabularies and phrases while arguing out. With anintention of helping the students to have the ability to use thelanguage in a suitable language in an appropriate manner the studentswill be involved in group discussion in a regular manner whereby mostof the time they will be practicing the uses of these vocabulariesand phrases learnt (Stevens,2010). Connectively,the students will also participate in an individual level in aninformational writing at the end of the section this is to ensurethat they can use the vocabulary in a comfortable and convenientmanner.

Studentlearning monitoring

Theclass work will involve periodic activities done in the assignedgroups, this call for an informal assessment that will be doneinformally through monitoring the group progress. Any difficultyencountered by the group will be discussed among the group members inthe presence of the teacher to offer guidance the processes ofevaluation will be used as a proof that students have the ability tointegrate their learnt courses in the class. The students will alsohave an informal observation as they work on their personal graphicorganizer. For a formal assessment, students will be required toanswer short speed tests with an intention of justifying theirunderstanding of the content that they have learned in the class(Bailey,&amp Heritage, 2008).

Conclusion

Thediscussed lesson plan is paramount in ensuring that every student inthe class will be able to express their ideas that they will havelearned from the lesson segment in a convenient manner. Anindividual assessment is vital since it helps in establishingstudents’ individual performance and noting their different needs.With the needs known it will be simpler to tackle a known problem forthe teachers. Individual assessment is also useful in assisting thestudents with the different abilities to demonstrate their learntskills during the class presentations and their writing.

Reference

Bailey,A. L., &amp Heritage, M. (2008). Formativeassessment for literacy, grades K-6: Building reading and academiclanguage skills across the curriculum.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Bergmann,J., &amp Sams, A. (2012).&nbspFlipyour classroom: Reach every student in every class every day.International Society for Technology in Education.

Chong,W. H., &amp Kong, C. A. (2012). Teacher collaborative learning andteacher self-efficacy: The case of lesson study.&nbspThejournal of experimental education,80(3),263-283.

Stevens,David. (2010). Cross-CurricularTeaching and Learning in the Secondary School … English: TheCentrality of Language in Learning.Taylor &amp Francis.

Phipps,S. (2015). Constructivist Language Teacher Education: An Example fromTurkey.&nbspInternationalPerspectives on English Language Teacher Education: Innovations fromthe Field,257.

White,H. (2005). Developingliteracy skills in the early years: A practical guide.London: PCP/Sage Publications.


Lesson Plan Commentary

Lesson Plan Commentary

LessonPlan Commentary

CentralFocus

Thecentral emphasis of these classes is to improve the students’informational writing skills. They are also meant to enhance theknowledge of the pupils’ regarding all things about animals sincethey are going to write about the animals of their choice.Additionally, these sections are meant to improve the students’interaction skills since they will work in groups and expressthemselves in front of others regularly. In the long run, they willalso enhance their reading skills. Typically, the focus is to ensurestudents can conduct extensive research and express themselves bothin arguments and writing. Various literacy strategies will beemployed to ensure the students are well taught. For instance, theyare going to work in groups then thereafter they will present theirindividual writing for evaluation. Both group works, and personalwriting are crucial in making the students understand better thewriting skills (Chong,et al. 2012).

Oneof the primary learning objectives that will help address theessential literacy strategy include working in groups where therewill be extensive interaction with others while discussing. Workingin groups will help the students to share their knowledge with othersand in the process they will improve their skills. Also, the studentsare expected to have some related skills to the content of thissection to ensure that there is easy contemplation in the course ofthe section.

Myplans have been designed in a particular manner to help the studentsto contemplate the new things that they come across. For instance, atthe beginning of the segment, the students will be provided withdefinitions of various vocabulary and essential phrases. They willalso be taught about the efficient use of the research material.Thereafter, they will participate in group discussions to help thempractice on the efficient ways to apply the vocabulary. Lastly, thestudents will be assessed for the use of the phrases and theapplication of the research material (Boyd,et al. 2012).

Knowledgeof students to inform teaching

Thereare various groups of students that I have identified in this class.For instance, there are two students with the IndividualizedEducation Programs, and they are related to speech only. Also, thereis one student with who is an English Language Learner. Lastly, threestudents in the class who are struggling readers. Therefore, theclass will be divided into particular groups whereby the studentswith specific needs will be grouped together. This will help me todeal with individual needs of every student in the class, and thefocus of the segment will be achieved quickly.

Ihave some basic background information about the students in thisclass. For instance, it is evident that the class contain studentsfrom both the poor, middle-class, and the wealthy families. Also,some students come from single parented families while others arebrought up by their relatives. It is also crucial to know thatmajority of the students have the ambitions of joining college whileothers are planning to join the armed forces. This backgroundinformation is crucial in designing the learning strategies to ensurethat the needs of all the students have been satisfied.

Supportingstudents’ literacy learning

Understandingmy students is a critical factor in meeting their needs at a personallevel. For instance, once I know there is a struggling reader in theclass, I will plan on the effective ways to improve their skills.Also, it is significant to understand the cultural background of thestudents, what they encounter on a daily basis and the communitypossession. This will help me in making appropriate choices ofmaterial to be used in class since you have considered the backgroundof all the students. Research has it that students will feel betterwhen they learn from an equal environment where they will have thenotion that they are on the same level (Bergmann,et al. 2012).

Theinstructional strategies I chose are appropriate for the whole classsince they consider all the students in the class regardless of theirbackground. For instance, working in groups will ensure that all thestudents have an equal access to the research material, and they willalso have an opportunity to discuss with their classmates. It issignificant to note that as the students work in groups I will be thecore leader of the class ready to help whenever they are stuck. Also,I have different expectations from the various groups that I havedivided into this class since there are those students that are astep behind (Borich,2013).

Sincethe students come with different literacy levels, at the end of thesegment it is expected that they will have developed to differentlevels. For instance, the major groups of students that came to thisclass includes the struggling readers and the students with IEPs. Toaddress this, I will divide the class into different groups ofstudents with specific needs and then I will set particular targetsfor each group that must be achieved at the end of the segment.

Supportingliteracy development through language

Oneof the significant functions of language in this section is toinform, and different vocabularies are used in various capacities todescribe things. Most of the vocabularies in this segment should bedefined with respect to animals and all things about animals. Also,the language in this section is meant to inform the readers’different things ranging from writing skills to the science ofanimals. Therefore, it is critical that the students shouldunderstand the use of various vocabulary that will regularly be used.

Thekey task in my plan that will help the students to practice usinglanguage function is through the informational writing. In the secondand the third lesson, the students will be expected to write theiressays and apply most of the things that they learned in class.Writing will enable them to improve their skills since they have beeninvolved at an individual level. In this plan, I will evaluate theskills of the students to in using language appropriately as theywrite. This learning task occurs in lesson three (the last lesson)after the students have learned the research skills and informationalwriting techniques.

Someof the additional language demands include that the students shouldbe in a capacity to use the vocabulary they learned in class in thecontext of their writing about animals. The students will be requiredto understand the correct meaning of certain vocabulary that iscommonly used in this section and also use them correctly. Besides,the students discourse ability should be exemplary to enable themparticipate in heated discussions in class. They are supposed to usekey phrases and vocabulary while arguing out (Phipps,2015).

Tohelp the student to be capable of using the suitable languageappropriately, they will be engaging in group discussions regularlywhereby most of the time they will be practicing the use of thesephrases. Additionally, they will also participate in informationalwriting at the end of the section to ensure that they can use thevocabulary comfortably.

Monitoringof student learning

Sincemost of the activities in class will be performed in group works,then the assessment will be done informally by monitoring theprogress of each group. Evaluating the students as the group workprogresses is complete proof that the students can integrate whatthey have read in class. Also, they will be assessed informally byobserving as they work on their individual graphic organizer.Additionally, the students will be evaluated formally by answeringshort quiz question to justify their understanding of the contentthat they have learned in class (Bergmann,et al. 2012).

Thedesign of my planned assessment is crucial in helping all thestudents in the class to express the ideas that they have obtained inthis segment. The individual assessment is vital in since I willobserve how each student in the class works on their graphicorganizer. This will help me to assess the progress of the studentsindividually and help the students with particular needs. Also, theindividual assessment will assist the students with particular needsto demonstrate what they learned during the presentation of theirwriting (Boyd,et al. 2012).

Reference

  1. Bergmann, J., &amp Sams, A. (2012).&nbspFlip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education.

  2. Borich, G. D. (2013).&nbspEffective teaching methods: Research-based practice. Pearson Higher Ed.

  3. Boyd, M. P. (2012). Planning and realigning a lesson in response to student contributions.&nbspThe Elementary School Journal,&nbsp113(1), 25-51.

  4. Chong, W. H., &amp Kong, C. A. (2012). Teacher collaborative learning and teacher self-efficacy: The case of lesson study.&nbspThe journal of experimental education, 80(3), 263-283.

  5. Phipps, S. (2015). Constructivist Language Teacher Education: An Example from Turkey.&nbspInternational Perspectives on English Language Teacher Education: Innovations from the Field, 257.

1


Lesson Plan Commentary

Lesson Plan Commentary

LESSON PLAN COMMENTARY 11

for Essential Literacy Strategy

1a. the Central Focus

In this lesson plan, the central focus is facilitating ‘learners toread ask questions and research information to compose aninformational writing on an animal.` In this subject, learners willbe reading various texts such as “Georgia Journeys Common CoreReading Book (students Edition) for informational text “AnimalsBuilding Homes” that will enable students learn about what aparagraphs and what research entails. Also, charts and instructionaldiagrams will be essential to enhance attention through the lessons.Group work will enhance balancing of students, this way the quicklearners will motivate the slow learners. The teachers will work toidentify and assist students with any difficulties. At the same timethey will assess the overall performance. The learners’ text willbe read, analyzed and compared with the instructional texts tofacilitate more understanding of the text, interpret meaning andconstrict meanings.

b. standards and learning objectives

The standards of objectives will constitute examinable processes,research practices and use of questionnaires and practical grouppresentation.

The common content standards that will be achieved through thesereadings in Lesson 1 is to help learners write informative andexplanatory texts that involve the use of facts, introducing a topic,developing points and providing concluding statements. Another commonstandard sought in Lesson 1 is to help learners recall informationfrom experiences as well as gathering information from the sourcesprovided. Students will manage to confidently ask and get genuineanswers for some questions as what, who, where, why and demonstrateclear and informed understanding of key details in texts.

In Lesson 1, Learners should also be able to participate incollaborative conversations with their diverse partners on Grade 2topics and texts with their peers. As shown in the lesson plan 1, theoverall goal is to help learners comprehend informational texts byasking questions and brainstorming ideas. Lesson 1 and Lesson 2 arerelated, and the central focus is helping learners write and recallinformation. However, in lesson 2, learners will be guided inwriting, reading and understanding informational texts. In Lesson 2,learners will use different sources to answer questions theseinclude trade books and the internet among others. Importantmaterials that are used in lesson 2 involve the use of non-fictionaltrade books such as Beavers by Martin James, Polar Bears by MaeveT. Sick and Leopards by Lola Schaefer among others. Thesetexts are used to enhance learners understanding on various aspectsof reading, writing and understanding written texts.

A common strategy applied from lesson 1, 2 and Lesson three will usethe measure of group conversations that help learners comprehend andorganize ideas, and this is good in promoting more reading andprewriting skills. In lesson 3, the central focus is also enablinglearners improve their writing skills by producing completesentences. The general strategy that cuts across all the lessons isenabling learners to be able to use facts as details, constructparagraphs that have well-organized ideas. In the same way, lesson 1and lesson 2 relies on groups works, Lesson 3 uses groups to helplearners improve their reading and text writing skills. The centralfocus in the lesson is ‘engaging students in interactive learningwith their diverse peers in grade 2 reading topics, issues and textsin order to enhance each other’s reading skills, ideas andconversing well.’ The overall purpose is to help learners makemeaningful comprehension of texts read and how to apply those ideasin their writing.

c. How I plan to build on each other

In this lesson plan, the main plan is to enhance learner’s languagelearning through the various language learning functions such asreading, writing and discussions. The teaching aids indicated inevery lesson for the grade 2 learner including various materials willbe used to develop learners cognition through graphic organizers,vocabulary charts and sentences frames. These teaching aids will beused alongside instructional materials for teachers and learners. Asindicated in lesson 1 through 3, the teacher uses the first part ofthe lesson to brainstorm language aspects learned in previouslessons.

Also, the teacher will group learners based on their reading andwriting skills to give personalized attention to slow learners.During lesson 3, Learners are taken through text reading andvocabulary charts and graphic organizers to enhance their languagelearning. Later, learners are assisted in writing information textsbased on language aspects learned in class through text readings. Theteacher uses interactive groups to help learners’ synthesis andmake connection of what is read in texts and share aides with othersthis is later enhanced by assisting learners write informationalpieces.

2. a. Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching

Learners have been taken through various reading strategies tounderstand the texts used. The central focus of the lesson is toenhance more reading and help learners research more on informationalwriting. Before the actual reading lessons, students have beenreading texts, and this is how we identified two students with IEPsrelated to speech only. There is one student in the class who is anELL while three students are struggling readers. Although moststudents have reading skills, they do not have the capacity forcomprehension, others can not apply the close reading andvocabularies learned when writing informational texts. However,almost all students can comprehend written text with less help apartfrom four students. Based on this knowledge, separate instructionalstrategies will be used to enable the struggling students learn howto read and make text connection. More support document will be usedto facilitate reading and comprehension for all students.Instructional materials will be integrated with textual references aswell as using group discussion to enhance more learning especiallyfor struggling readers.

2 b. Learners experiences, cultural and language background

Most learners like group discussion after reading class texts andthis more common when learners are asked to identify vocabulariesread from texts from the charts. Culturally, most learners are raisedby parents that are not biological parents, and this could haveaffected their language development. I noted that most learnersexhibit introvert tendencies while others struggle with speech alldue to developmental problems. However, most learners show greataptitude in learning especially when reading texts or writinginformation pieces.

Majority of the students aspire to attend institutions of higherlearning and thus are keen in their learning. In this case, thelearning instructions are adjusted as per the student’s culturaland learning interests. To enhance learning and keep learnersattention, charts and graphic organizers are used. Similarly, groupdiscussions help to encourage learners in reading texts and makingconnections with written texts (Vygotsky, 1986). I have adjusted theinstructional methods that suit all students I intend to useindividualized instruction method for struggling learners, vocabularycharts for all learners while group discussions help encouragelearning by integrating slow learners with gifted students.

3 a. Supporting Students’ Literacy Learning

According to the assessment done prior the beginning of lesson plansin 2a above, the learning and teaching approach used for tasks andteaching aids meets the identified needs of the students. In 2a, Ianalyzed that most learners do not have the capacity to comprehendand understand written texts. I further observed that even whenstudents learn how to read, they are unable to ‘understand’ ideasand vocabularies used. In this light, in lesson 1 and 2, I plan touse instructional materials alongside teaching aids such asvocabulary charts and anchor charts to help learners comprehendwritten texts. In lesson 1 for instance, I also plan to includegroups learning as part of enhancing interactive learning and to helpslow learners as assessed prior lesson plans.

In the prior assessments, I identified three learners who strugglewith reading while the other has a speech problem. In this case, forlesson 1 and two instruction method was designed to have individualteaching for the affected learners especially in facilitating theirunderstanding, reading, pronunciation, and comprehension. In lesson2, graphic organized and groups were used to enhance cognitivelearning especially by helping learners organize ideas. Anchor andgraphic organizer charts were used in lesson 1 and lesson 2 to helplearners connect and practice what is learned in texts. Groups weredesigned to help learners learn from others as stated in Selman’stheory of social-cognitive development (Selman, 1976). Selman (1976)is of the opinion that learners learn more when engaged ininteractive learning such as the group and individualized teachingused in lesson 2.

3. b Instructional strategies and planned support

Grade 2 class has various categories of learners slow learners,IEPS, struggling readers, introverts, and gifted learners. In orderto address the challenges of these students the following teachingstrategies are used individualized teaching, informal learning,reviewing learning materials of previous lessons and using informallearning approaches to benefit the whole class as illustrated by Kim and Axelrod (2005). In each lesson, a review of previous learningis done to enhance more understanding.

As indicated in the pedagogical approach used in lesson 1 and 2, thegoal of using instructional teaching aids, anchor charts and graphorganizer is to improve learning for slow learners, IEPs and learnerswith struggling problem. The use of class groups helps learners inlearning form others and thus realize some responsibility fromteachers while fostering students to learn from others (Leonard,2002). All lessons whether individual based, group and class lessonare supported with teaching aids such as graphic organizers andanchor charts. An elaborate understanding of learners helps in theselection of teaching strategy as well as additional support needed(Hitch, 1974).

3. c. Common misconceptions in the central focus and how toaddress them

The central focus of these lessons is to enhance learners read,comprehend and write informational texts based on aspects learnedthrough reading texts. Some of the common misconception is that thestrategies used in the lessons are that with the first practice,learners will be able to read, ask questions and be able to organizeideas in information writing as per the teaching instructions. Inmost cases, learners take series of lessons before them masterreading and comprehension of texts. The use of group, additionalinstruction materials, individualized instructions and teaching aidsare not enough to enable learners master reading and writing in fewlessons. Therefore, series of lessons should be arranged to repeatprevious lessons leanings as well as providing detailed instructions.A vivid description of all concepts, instructions, and vocabulary,helps learners learn more as explained by Kim and Axelrod (2005).

4. Supporting Literacy Development through Language

  1. Language function

The central focus of the lesson is the verb ‘inform.’ The centralfocus of the lesson plan is to enhance reading and writing skills forlearners. In lesson 1 through lesson 2, students are engaged inreading texts that help them determine the meanings of words andphrases relevant to grade 2 learners. Students read and engage ingroup discussions aimed at improving learners’ knowledge ofvocabularies and meaning of sentences this is the language functionof ‘informing’ learners more about reading especially forstudents struggling to read. In lesson 3, learners are made to usethe learned language in their writing. Teaching and learningstrategies such as reading charts and organizing graphics used inlesson 1, 2 and three the teacher helps in informing learners moreabout vocabularies and how they are used in sentence when writing. Inthis way, learners can comprehend, interpret and respond to writtentexts as discussed by Vygotsky (1986) in his education theories.

4. b learning tasks

In all lessons, learners have a chance to practice the languagefunction ‘inform’ especially through continued text readings,checking vocabularies in the anchors’ charts and using the internetto learn more about writing. In lesson 1 the teacher introduceslearners to the target vocabularies that will be covered in thefollowing lessons. This is done to help learners develop theunderstanding of how to use various vocabularies when writinginformation sentences. In lesson 2 and 3, the teacher helps learnersreview vocabularies learned in previous lessons, as well as newvocabularies. In lesson 3, the teacher helps learners use the learnedvocabularies in sentences when writing information pieces. As alanguage task of ‘inform,’ the teacher also uses class groups toenhance more learning as well as helping learners improve theircognitive awareness of the language function intended.

4. c. Additional language demands

In all lessons 1-3, learners are taken through oral and written tasksto enable them learn enough language. To learn vocabularies, inlesson 1, the teacher uses texts and instructional materials to teachstudents new phrases and vocabularies. Anchor charts and graphicorganizer help learners learn more about vocabularies. In lesson 2,the instruction involves grouping learners in small groups where theydiscuss the meaning and the use of new vocabularies in sentences. Inthis way, learners can develop and understand sentence structure andsyntax. While in groups the teacher assists learners in understandingthe discourses patterns of sentence structure.

4. d Language support

In lesson 1, 2 and 3, learners engage in small group discussionswhere they share vocabularies learned from reading texts. In lesson1, the teacher uses the graphic organizer to help students withspecial needs. This way the students learn how to undertake research.Another support used to enhance language learning demands is bygrouping students with similar needs. By using instructionalmaterials, the exercise will be used to foster reading and writingskills using instructional materials. In lesson 2 and 3, the teacherhelps learner’s complete graphic organizers that are then displayedin smart boards for students to view. This helps students learn newvocabularies and sentence structure. While in these class groups, theteacher helps the learners to use vocabulary in making sentences aswell as through conversation, and this improves learners’ syntax.After reading texts, learners are made to identify vocabularies anddiscuss their meaning as explained by Phillips &amp Soltis, (2009).

5. Monitoring Student Learning

To monitor student learning, formal and informal learningassessments are used after every lesson. These assessments areconducted prior and after lessons. Brainstorming and ticket-outstrategy are used to assess if learners recall previous lesson`slearning as discussed by Kim and Axelrod (2005). At the end of eachlesson, learners are made to discuss lesson contents in small groupswhile under the teacher’s observation. In this case, in lesson 1,observation, brainstorming and ticket out of the door card are usedas informal methods of monitoring learners’ progress. Also, a shortquiz is set based on characteristics of informational writing.

In lesson 2, besides using observation to monitor learners’progress, a graphic organizer is used. In the third lesson, informalmethods of evaluation such as the use of graphic organizers,observation and information writing paper are used to assess learnerscomprehension, how to write informative pieces and other aspects oflanguage development. At the end of each lesson, formal assessmentsare done by requesting learners to write informative pieces based ontheir learning and social issues. Written assessments are given tolearners in the third lesson after participating in graphic organizerand group discussions. The objective is to ensure that learners havemastered sentences structure, word meaning and how to use words tocreate meaning s that reflects their social environment.

5. b. The design of the planned assessments

Pre-assessments are conducted through short reading passages for alllearners IEPs, 504, struggling readers, gifted learners and learnerswith low academic knowledge. During the pre-assessment, a shortpassage is read out clearly for all students, and this is followedwith informal assessment where each student answers few questionsbased on the passage read. In this way, the teacher can identify slowlearners, struggling readers and gifted learners. During lesson oneand two, informal method of observing learners is used to assesstheir reading. This is done through helping students complete thegraphic organizers this session is followed by small groupdiscussions that allow each student to collaborate in the discussion.In these group discussions, the teacher can identify and assiststruggling learners and gifted learners. Later, in lesson 3, theteacher request students to complete formal written assessments. Assuch, the teacher can identify gaps in academic knowledge.

References

Hitch, G.J.L. (1974). G.A. Bower, ed. The psychology of learningand motivation: Advances in research and theory (8 Ed.). NewYork: Academic Press. pp.&nbsp47–89.

Kim, T and Axelrod, S. (2005). &quotDirect Instruction: AnEducators` Guide and a Plea for Action&quot – The BehaviorAnalyst Today, 6. (2), p. 111

Leonard, David (2002). Learning theories, A to Z. Westport,Conn: Oryx Press.

Phillips, D. C., &amp Soltis, J. F. (2009). Perspectives on Learning(Fifth). New York: Teachers College Press.

Selman, R.L. (1976) The development of social-cognitiveunder-standing: A guide to educational and clinical practice. In T.Lickona (Ed.), Man and morality. New York: Holt, Rinehart&ampWinston, 299-317.

Vygotsky, L (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, Ma: MITPress.