Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management

INTELLIGENCE 4

KnowledgeManagement

KnowledgeManagement

Intelligenceis conceived differently in many cultures. The different approachesdefine the evaluation of the members by the culture (Hasler, 2010).

Themain tenets of the Chinese culture are socialization and community.The members are required to live together. In contrast, the Americanculture is based on capitalism. Members focus on individualism thenthe community afterwards (Dreiser, 2003).

TheChinese culture views intelligence from a benevolent point of view.Specifically, the Confucian perspective guides them and the Tao thatdescribes benevolence as the art of doing what is right. The cultureviews intelligence as humility and tests the members through thesame. It also calls the members to be free from conventional thinkingand that they should be full of the knowledge of themselves and thatof others. The first influencing culture in the Chinese is socialcompetence that is the acquisition of necessary skills for survival.Second is the respect for oneself, peers and the seniors. Finally,humility is the ability to deny oneself for the benefit of thecommunity (Colson, 2013).

TheAmerican cultural drives include, first, the acquisition anddevelopment of knowledge and skills. It is the ability to seekinformation and build the capacity to use the information. Second iscognition to recognize the important aspects of survival and third isthe talent culture. It emanates from recognizing oneself as well asthe things an individual can do best (Obama, 2006).

Thebest measure of the Chinese intelligence is the social skills.Specifically, the culture calls for social skills to create aharmonious coexistence. The Americans best measure of intelligence isskills, learning and enthusiasm. The culture calls their members tohave great enthusiasm and learn as much as they can. Consequently, itcalls the individuals to engage in persistence.

References

Andrews,L. (2003). Intelligence.New York, NY: Franklin Watts.

Colson,M. (2013). Chineseculture.Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library.

Dreiser,T. (2003). AnAmerican tragedy.New York, NY: Literary Classics of the United States .

Hasler,S. (2010). Intelligence.New York, NY: Thomas Dunne Books-St. Martin`s Press.

Obama,B. (2006). The audacity of hope: Thoughts on reclaiming the Americandream. New York, NY: Crown.


Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT 3

KnowledgeManagement

Thevarious classes of income include the broad income, the gross incomeand the adjusted gross income. Income is conceived to include allthe taxpayers’ revenues, both taxable and nontaxable.

Thedeductibility of losses in a class as a result of losses in anotherclass depends on the type of loss and the class of income. There arelosses that cannot be offset with gains from the same class whilethere are others that receive special tax treatments and thus it ispossible. A good example is capital gains that are related toproperty. For example, ordinary gains from transactions that involveproperties are taxable once they are recognized. Similarly, lossesthat are incurred from property related transactions are fullydeductable upon recognition. For a transaction to receive the fullspecial tax treatment, it must meet the specifications of capitalassets. Majority of personal items are classified as capital assets.However, Capital assets do not include inventory, accountsreceivables and any property that is depreciable and used inbusiness. In addition, the net capital losses are deductible foradjusted gross income to an annual maximum of $ 3,000 and the excesscapital losses are carried over to the next year (Merino, 2011).

Ona joint return, the loss of one spouse can be used to offset the gainon the other spouse within the same class of income. However, thebasic standard deduction depends on the filing status of thetaxpayer. In situations where the taxpayer is under 65 years of age,married and filling jointly, they are entitled to a basic standarddeduction amount of 12,600. In addition, if the taxpayer is above theage of 65 years, they are entitled to an additional standarddeduction of $ 1,250. The same occurs if the taxpayer is declared aslegally blind. The deductions do not apply for spouses that aremarried and filing separately, non-resident aliens and individualsthat are filling returns for a period of less than 12 months as aresult of changes in the accounting period (Merino, 2011).

References

Merino,N. (2011). Taxreform.Detroit, MI.: Greenhaven Press.


Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management

KnowledgeManagement

KnowledgeManagement

Knowledgemanagement refers to the process that a business captures, develops,gathers, organises, shares, evaluates, and analysis itsorganisational knowledge in terms of documents, databases, resources,policies, procedures, and people skills. In other words, there arethe multi-disciplined approach that businesses make use of theknowledge they have. Although the concept of knowledge management hasgreat benefits to a business, it as well comes with some risks(Harris,1998).Commonly, these risks fall under the concept of definition,expectations, ownership, and measuring success.

Mostorganisations struggle to define the knowledge managementinitiatives. Knowledge management initiatives find out the knowledgepossessed by employees and break down traditional barriers thatprevent from sharing of knowledge (WenChong,Holden, Wilhelmij, and Schmidt, 2000). Unfortunately,some organisations fail to give clear scope. Nevertheless, knowledgemanagement initiative can be successful if it has clear definition ofscope and objectives.

Otherrisks are associated with knowledge managements are unrealistic andunclear expectations. For instance, cost and time wasting is a riskarises when an organisation tries to meet unrealistic expectations.The risks are perceived failure and over-engineered solutions. Toovercome this risk, employees should promise that they are sure theycan deliver. In doing so, there would be satisfied constituents.

Ownershipis another risk associated with knowledge management. Somedepartments lack good leadership, reliable, and controlledinformation. However, when different department differ in knowledgemanagement initiative, there is unclear concept of ownership.Therefore, organisation should distinguish ownership of initiative,information, and delivery media. In addition, they should clarifyownership in every aspect. As a reward, there will be consensus andcommitment from all departments.

Measuringsuccess also pose as a risk in knowledge management. According toHarris(1998),there is always challenge to measure success even though there isclear definition of initiative, realistic expectations, and clearaspects of ownership. It is difficult to define whether an initiativehas succeeded. Dalkir(2013) advocated that it would be wise for the initiative to keepinforming the departments of their successes and failures. This way,there will be demonstrable success, as well as platform forimprovement.

References

Dalkir,K. (2013).&nbspKnowledgemanagement in theory and practice.Routledge.

Harris,I. (1998). Z/Yen. Retrieved September 17, 2015, fromhttp://www.zyen.com/component/content/article.html?id=166

WenChong,C., Holden, T., Wilhelmij, P., &amp Schmidt, R. A. (2000). Wheredoes knowledge management add value?.&nbspJournalof Intellectual Capital,&nbsp1(4),366-380.