Issues in Management

Issues in Management


Leadership and management complement each other in setting the paceof any group. However, they are different in their functions andscope and should not be used interchangeably. Leadership focuses oninnovation of ideas in an organization while management involvesadministering the already innovated systems. Management focuses onmaintaining the systems that are in place (Schoenly, 2012). On theother hand, leadership focuses on developing people’s abilities. Amanager aims at reaching to the bottom line of all the activities inan organization. A manager’s work is objective to a definite coursethat is pre-determined. Leadership involves looking at the horizonand anticipating any changes and daring them (Kotter, 2013). The twoare therefore not the same.

Empowerment is a term that describes a set of approaches that helpspeople to gain control over their lives (Lesser et al., 2015).Through empowerment, people implement initiatives that help them toaddress the challenges affecting their lives. It involves confidenceand understanding whereby people take responsibilities in theirdifferent departments autonomously with little guidance. It alsoinvolves the acquiring of new skills that facilitate the achievementof goals and objectives.

According to Fernandez &amp Moldogaziev (2013), individuals andgroups can manifest empowerment. Individuals exhibit the qualities ofunderstanding their tasks and aligning them to the organizationalgoals. They go further to work with minimum supervision, and they canmake proposals to the management on their proposed best practices.Group empowerment may occur at the departmental level whereby theyexhibit desirable teamwork skills and shared objectives. Empoweredindividuals in any organization curtail the need for the managementto follow employees in every step of a work process (Fernandez &ampMoldogaziev, 2013).

There are several approaches to studying leadership. Trait approachresearch is a major method used to identify desirable personalcharacteristics in individuals. In an organization, personal traitsexhibited by the leader form an integral part of the position sinceit has a direct effect on the followers. It is a systematic attemptto study various personality related temperaments, dispositions andabilities (Northouse, 2015). In addition, it investigates theenduring qualities in individuals that include both physical anddemographic characteristics.

Leadership trait research is imperative in that it helps to put theright people in leadership positions. What the people need is anindividual with desirable traits that impact on them positively. Theresearch is instrumental in setting the standards of the mostcompetent person to hold a particular position Dinh, Lord, Gardner,Meuser, Liden and Hu (2014). Therefore, it acts as a benchmark and areference point when sourcing for leadership skills in anorganization.

Workplace relationships are major determinants of the quality ofdecisions made by the management as well as the level of productivitythat is as a result of workplace motivation. As Vidyarthi, Erdogan,Anand, Liden, and Chaudhry (2014) put it, the leader-member exchangeprogram focuses on the association between workers and theirsupervisors. The management creates a friendly platform where thesupervisors and the workers relate both officially and informallywith the aim of creating a relaxed but professional workingenvironment (Vidyarthi et al., 2014).

According to Dulebohn et al. (2012) the aim of the relationship isto develop workers’ responsibility and taking part in decisionmaking. It contributes to effective use of the available resourcesdue to the increased access to help and correction. However, thelevel of trust and loyalty to the supervisor determines the intensityof the relationship (Dulebohn et al., 2012). Loyal employees workhard to achieve the set objectives are invaluable to the supervisor.He feels comfortable when assigning challenging roles to them sincetheir performance is predictable. Workers become motivated andexplorative, and they perceive their supervisors as instrumentalsources of advice rather than agents of control.


Dinh, J. E., Lord,R. G., Gardner, W. L., Meuser, J. D., Liden, R. C., &amp Hu, J.(2014). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Currenttheoretical trends and changing perspectives. The LeadershipQuarterly, 25(1), 36-62.

Dulebohn, J. H.,Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., &amp Ferris, G. R.(2012). A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences ofleader-member exchange integrating the past with an eye toward thefuture. Journal of Management, 38(6), 1715-1759.

Fernandez, S., &ampMoldogaziev, T. (2013). Employee empowerment, employee attitudes, andperformance: Testing a causal model. Public Administration Review,73(3), 490-506.

Kotter, J. (2013).Management is (still) not leadership. Harvard Business ReviewBlog. January, 9, 2013.

Lesser, J., De LaRosa, E. M., &amp Ramirez, V. V. (2015). Las Mujeres Nobles Identifytheir Meaning of Empowerment: A Participatory Data Analysis Project.Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 36(8), 641-643.

Northouse, P. G.(2015). Leadership: Theory and practice. New York N.Y.: Sagepublications.

Schoenly, L. (2012).Management and Leadership. Essentials of Correctional Nursing,327.

Vidyarthi, P. R.,Erdogan, B., Anand, S., Liden, R. C., &amp Chaudhry, A. (2014). Onemember, two leaders: Extending leader–member exchange theory to adual leadership context. Journal of applied psychology, 99(3),468.