Duringthe Second World War, made a decision to remain neutral andrefrain from being involved in the European conflicts. However, theEuropean powers, mainly Britain, Germany and the Soviet Union hadinterest in the oil rich country. Therefore, the war had numerouseffects on the social and political situation in . The social,economic and political systems in were disrupted by the war.Most importantly, the presence of foreign troops in the countryinitiated social and political changes were the public becamexenophobic and nationalism sentiments emerged. Additionally, thestruggle between the United States and Soviet Union over oilheightened political tensions in the mid 1940s. This led to theestablishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Party which south toestablish an autonomous republic. The tension between the procommunist and pro American political wings in continued untilthe 1947 when the Soviets influence in diminished1.Further nationalism sentiments emerged in 1950 as a result of theperception hat the British government was benefiting more from theian oil leading to the exist of British technician. The politicalunrests that resulted from the increased popularity of Mossadeqcalled for the intervention of the United States. The power strugglebetween Mossadeq and Shah resulted into deterioration of thepolitical and social system in 2.By 1953, Mossadeq had become an autocratic leader such that theBritish and the United States feared that he would instigate Sovietcontrol over . The attempt by the western powers to instill aShah appointed prime minister resulted into an armed struggle.Although the autocratic leadership was overthrown in the OperationAjax, the struggle was far from over. To deal with the politicaltensions, the American government, through shah appointed Ali Aminias the prime minister. However, Amini government was not able toeffectively deal with the problems facing 3.

Inthe 1960s, there were relative economic and political stability. However, there emerged some disillusioned young ians who weremotivated by the ineffectiveness of the opposition in the country4.Although some of the movements were overpowered by the authorities,Fadayan and Mojahedin, who had Marxist and extreme Islamicideological orientations survived5.In the 1970s, these groups initiated political unrests which acted asprecursors to the ian revolution. After intense politicalactivities against the government, the Rex Cinema incidence in Abadanwas a big blow to the position of the government. This led to theIslamic revolution that resulted into a change from an obsoletemonarch led by Shah into an Islamic republic led by RuhollahKhomeini6.


AlthoughTurkey adopted the UN charter on democracy, human rights and liberty,it marked the beginning of political conflicts in the post World WarII era. Although there was an attempt to democratize the politicalprocesses in the country, some political factions were opposed to it.The Democratic Party won the general elections in 1946, 1950 and1954. After the party strengthened it political influence in the 1954general elections, it initiated several legislative changes that weretermed as authoritarian by the opposition since it limited thefreedom of press. The law aimed at preventing irresponsiblejournalism was strengthened some months before the general electionsin 1957. In 1960, the government suspended political activities inthe country and imposed the martial law, which resulted intowidespread political unrest by students who were later joined bymilitary cadets. Although the military was involved in enforcing theauthoritarian policies by the government of President Bayar and PrimeMinister Menderes, entry of the military cadets in the protestagainst the martial laws had huge impacts. Senior military leadersbecome convinced that the government went against the Kemalistprinciples which led to a coup. The coup led to the preparation a newconstitution that created a second republic, a departure from the1924 constitution. Despite the political changes that were introducedby the new constitution, another military revolt was staged in 1962,although was not successful7.

Afterthe 1964 local election, the government significantly increasedmilitary spending and maintained a hard line approach to law andorder. However, the military remained suspicious of the politicalleadership in the country. The political landscape in Turkeysignificantly changed after the 1960 general election. New politicalgrouping emerged after some of the parties which previouslycooperated with the government established a Islamic oriented partyknow as the National Salvation party. As the government lost majoritysupport in the legislature, politically motivated terrorism andviolence intensified. The unrest resulted into another coup in 1971resulting into the fall of Demirel government. The coup opened a newera in the history of turkey. The fractured political structuresresulted into social and economic instability as well asunprecedented violence between communists and ultranationalist groupsin different parts of the country. The 1980 coup extended the martiallaw to all provinces in Turkey leading a decade of undemocratic oneparty political system. Since then, the autocratic political systemsin Turkey have resulted into unending political and socialinstability in the country8.


:The Coming of the Revolution,

:State and Society, 1964–1974,

:The Post-Mossadeq Era and the Shah’s White Revolution,

:Renewed Opposition,

:Mossadeq and Oil Nationalization,

:World War II and the Azarbaijian Crisis,

Turkey:Multiparty Politics and the Armed Forces Coup and Interim Rule,

Turkey:Politics and Foreign Relations in the 1960s and Crisis in TurkishDemocracy,

1 : World War II and the Azarbaijian Crisis,

2 : Mossadeq and Oil Nationalization,

3 : The Post-Mossadeq Era and the Shah’s White Revolution,

4 : Renewed Opposition,

5 : State and Society, 1964–1974,

6 : The Coming of the Revolution,

7 Turkey: Multiparty Politics and the Armed Forces Coup and Interim Rule,

8 Turkey: Politics and Foreign Relations in the 1960s and Crisis in Turkish Democracy,