Instructional Strategies for Four Domains

Instructional Strategies for Four Domains

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR THE FOUR DOMAINS 8

InstructionalStrategies for Four Domains

InstructionalStrategies and Domains

Thelearning of the English language and English Language Developmentinvolves domains that relate to the learner’s side of theteaching-learning process. The domains focus on helping the learnerto know and understand the language. The four domains includereading, speaking, listening, and writing. On the instructor’sside, there are various methods of instruction that are adopted toenhance the learning process on the learner. These methods are basedon specific instructional strategies that are used to enhancelearning. Therefore, it is possible to assign or match each strategywith the specific domains that it identifies with. The discussion onthe topic will identify different instructional strategies and assigneach with a specific domain that is most effective for.

DifferentInstructional strategies and Effective Domains

Discussion

Oneof the main instructional strategies used for learning the Englishlanguage is discussions. In the discussion strategy of instruction,the teacher turns the class into forums where both the teacher andthe students exchange collaborative knowledge. Discussions involveselection of a number of topics that the learners are allowed todiscuss and give their views (Carrasquillo, 2013). The learners andthe teacher are engaged in an organized exchange of ideas, argumentsand views based on a topic and their own understanding. This sharpensthe learners’ ability to formulate arguments, present ideas anddefend their argumentation.

Thedomain that is assigned for this instructional strategy is speaking.This is because the learner of the English language is forced tospeak during the discussion process. At the same time, the learner isengaged in formulating ideas and arguments to the class. Speaking isa language learning domain that involves listening to what others arepresenting and offering other arguments (Otterby,2011).Speaking is the domain that is effective for this instructionalstrategy because learners are given a chance to explain, argue andrespond to others through the use of the language.

Insummary, the strategy of discussions should be used in both the earlyEnglish learning stage and later in the learning of the language. Thediscussion strategy is effective in the early learning of the Englishlanguage because it offers a change for students to practice simpleterms and grammar. On the advanced English learners’ side, thediscussion strategy sharpens the argumentative skills and use ofadvanced grammar by the learners.

Lectures

Alecture is an instructional strategy where the teacher gives therelevant information, knowledge and instructional content to thelearners. This strategy involves a lot of activity on the side of theteacher, but not on the side of the learner (Rojas, 2007). Thelearner mostly notes down the knowledge and content passed from theteacher. However, the learner may ask questions at the end of thelecture, which the teacher answers in the same method. Lecturestrategy is mostly used when the number of learners is high and timeis limited to teach certain content.

Listeningis the most conspicuous domain for English Language Development forlecture method. This is because learners are forced to listen to whatthe teacher is saying and teaching. For them to note what the teacheris giving, they must be engaged in active listening. The learner isable to learn the English language through listening of theexplanations and examples provided by the instructor(Coyne et al, 2007). Thisfurther enhances the ability of students to learn the languagethrough listening of the correct way of speaking the language.

Thelecture method strategy is appropriate and effective only in thelater stage of the English learning. The later stage learners aremore appropriate for the strategy because they have higher listeningskills than the beginners. In addition, the lecture strategy ofinstruction is appropriate for the long-term learning, especiallywhen learners advance their levels of English mastery (Otterby,2011).

Compositionsand Writing tasks

Compositionsor the use of writing tasks is another instructional strategy that isused to teach English language and language skills to learners.Teachers give these tasks and mark them and correct the studentsbased on the mistakes they make. Teachers use compositions to trainthe English learners how to organize their ideas through writing(Rojas, 2007). Through the use of writing tasks, English languageinstructors seek to engage the learners in practical lessons thatinvolve them to use the language that they have learned and presenttheir work. This enhances the understanding and practice of Englishlanguage through making of mistakes and corrections by theinstructor.

Writingis the domain that identifies with the strategy of using compositiontasks. This is because the composition and writing tasks that theinstructor gives are purely presented in writing. The writingstrategy and domain are aligned to each other because they involveone single activity among the learners. Writing domain forces thelearner to organize arguments and present them in written form(Otterby,2011).This promotes proper learning of the English language in a writtenformat. Moreover, writing gives the instructor the chance to correctthe mistakes made by the learner and respond for him to learn.

Thestrategy of using writing and the writing domain is applicable inboth the early English learners and the advanced English learners’level. The strategy is effective for the early learners of theEnglish language because it gives them an opportunity to write whatthey understand of the language and the regular learning. Learners atthis stage are able to express themselves in writing the Englishlanguage and get corrections from the instructor. For the advancedlearners, the writing strategy and domain is effective in helpinglearners’ present arguments in written form and practice thewritten English. At the same time, they get an opportunity to getcorrected by the instructor at the advanced level.

Classreader and Literature tasks

Theclass reader strategy is the teaching-learning practice where thelearners are given a chance to read English content aloud in class.The instructor organizes the class into reading sessions where eachsession is allocated to a student. When their chance is due, eachstudent reads an English text allocated to him or her. In addition,instructors use this strategy used to give students` literature tasksof reading and analyzing written material. This gives the students achance to read and forces them to practice English by practicallyreading the written language.

Readingis the domain that relates directly to the strategy of using a classreader and literature tasks. This is because the learners are forcedto read the written language and use the opportunity given to them tovoice the reading skills. The teacher is able to correct the learner,and offer practical and timely intervention in the learning ofreading. The use of this strategy is effective because theinstructors of the English language are able to identify the areas ofdifficulty among different learners in real time. Through thisunderstanding, teachers are able to correct the problems and enhancelearning.

Theuse of class reader or the literature tasks as an instructionalstrategy if effective for both the early and advanced Englishlearners. This is because the strategy gives an opportunity tolearners in both of the two stages to practice reading at theirdifferent levels of language mastery. On the early English learners,reading allows them to practice grammar and pronunciation amongothers. For the advanced level learners, the use of class reader islimited to presenting literature projects and English presentations.This gives them a chance to present their knowledge, analysis andarguments from what they have read.

Groupprojects

Groupproject strategy is used by language instructors to develop thelanguage skills of the learners and enhance their communicationskills. Group projects are high cognitive practices that seek toengage the abilities of the learner to cooperate with other learnersduring learning(Gregory &amp Chapman, 2007). Theteacher selects students in organized groups and gives the tasks towork on together. They present the results either to the teacher orto the class, where they all share their experience and knowledgeacquired from the tasks. Through the use of the group projects, thelanguage instructor is able to teach all the learners collectively bygiving them a collective task or a set of tasks(Coyne et al, 2007).

Thedomain that most relate to this strategy of instruction is speaking.This is because group projects involve a lot of discussions as thegroup members try to tackle the problems or tasks that are presentedto them in the learning practice. In addition, the group projectsinvolve a lot of cognitive skills that train the student to learnmore information from others. These activities include analysis,evaluation, research and discussions(Gregory &amp Chapman, 2007). However,the group project strategy also involves reading and writing as theother secondary domains in the learning of the English language.

Groupproject strategy is used in both the early level English learners andthe later level English learners. This is because all the levels oflearning the English language involve the application of the domainsof learning to use in group projects (Carrasquillo, 2013). At theearly English learners’ level, the instructor forms groups topractice simple English terms, compare pronunciations, holddiscussions and engage in simple debates. For the advanced Englishlearners’ level, the teacher uses group projects to allow studentsto discuss, argue and analyze English topics as a group. The use ofgroup projects is a strategy that allows the teacher to take the roleof guiding students to learn or discover knowledge for themselves.

Conclusion

Differentinstructional strategies are used at different times by languageteachers, especially in the teaching of the English language. At thesame time, the strategies used by teachers relate to specific domainsin English Language Development. The main domains are reading,speaking, writing and listening. Among other instructionalstrategies, the most common one are lecturing, class reader,compositions, discussions and group projects. For each of thestrategies, there is a domain that relates to the instructionalpractice as applied by the teacher. By using these strategies anddomains, the teaching of the English language is enhanced at alllevels of learning.

References

Carrasquillo,A. (2013). Teaching English as aSecond Language: A Resource Guide.New York: Routledge.

Coyne,D., Kameenui, E.J. &amp Carnine, D. (2007). Effective TeachingStrategies that Accommodate Diverse Learners.New Jersy: PearsonMerrill Prentice Hall

Gregory,H., &amp Chapman, C. (2007). DifferentiatedInstructional Strategies.New York: Corwin Press

Rojas,V. (2007). Strategies for Success withEnglish Language Learners. UnitedStates: Association for Supervision &amp Curriculum Development,Vol. 2, 47, 176-194

Otterby,O.L. (2011). Instructional Strategies to Enhance English LanguageLearners` Vocabulary Acquisition. Charleston: BiblioBazaar