Health Care Policy

Health Care Policy

HealthCare Policy

Healthcare policy involves a set of actions that government undertakes toobtain the desired health outcomes. The health care system is shapedthrough policy making process, which comes from local, federallegislation, and court rulings that governs the provision of healthcare. Private sectors such as care organizations and hospitals arealso responsible for shaping the health care system (Askin &ampMoore, 2012).

Whencoming up with a health policy, several steps or actions must beconsidered:

  • The first step involves identifying a problem, opportunity or a challenge that needs improvement. In this step, it is crucial to identify the process through which the problem occurred by stating who, when, and where it occurs.

  • The other step is defining the aims of intervention. In this case, the involved team states the measurable exactly what will be achieved, when and where it will occur, and who will be involved.

  • Afterwards, the involved team designs steps for interventions by addressing the challenge or problem identified.

  • Developing an implementation plan is the next most important step. The involved team develops an implementation plan and trains the relevant people on how to go about it. In this case, awareness campaigns are crucial to ensure that all the stakeholders have the necessary knowledge.

  • Plan for ongoing improvements then takes the lead. This includes assessments, of the effectiveness of the plans, and identification of opportunities for improvement. A communication plan targeting all the stakeholders is also implemented to ensure effective communication. This plan identifies who, how, when, what, goals, and how to communicate.

  • Finally, the policy makers put together all the action plans in a single sheet. At this stage, the plan is ready to take place in a myriad of settings.


Askin,E., &amp Moore, N. (2012). Thehealth care handbook: A clear and concise guide to the United Stateshealth care system.St. Louis: Washington University in St. Louis.

Health Care Policy

Health Care Policy

HealthCare Policy


Everythingin the world has been changing too fast to accommodate the trends.Policies, just like other observable phenomenon have been a subjectof tremendous change so that all the changes in the environmentcomply with the basic rule governing humanity. More so, people areincreasingly aware of their rights in all aspects and, as a result,loopholes in policies have to be amended to reflect the rights andobligations of these people. Government and rules in every field areadopting an open leadership and democratic style where individualscan express themselves. These increased transparencies in policyformulation and implementation have evolved with the time aiming toinclude the rights of individuals. The field of medicine and healthsystem is not an exception, in fact, it is among the most involvedfield undergoing radical policy change and formulation to protect andobserve the rights of patients. Policies, nevertheless, undergo arigorous process before becoming law. It all start with a simplesubject of discussion but later it is considered and becomes a majormilestone. Time is taken and through patience and endurance, theproposed issue later becomes an operational policy.

Rightsof Human Participants in Medical Research

Fora long time, the rights of human volunteers in the biological,medical study have been neglected. In the 1960`s and 70`s, numerousscandals emerged involving the use of patients and other illiterategroups. That called for the need to provide guidelines thatsystematically and rigorously protected individuals involved inbiological research. Available guidelines at the moment provideinsufficient protection to the human participants as was intended bythe previous guidelines. With the development in the academic fieldof medical research, the policies regarding protection of humanparticipants have not coped with that pace. The system is too narrowand protects a limited number of participants, and the system isbureaucratic, hence, stifling responsible research. Presence offederal agencies I itself is not sufficient to formulate andimplement policies but it is a collective responsibility of both theexecutive and legislative arms of government in order to realizeeffective, responsive and comprehensive system capable of providingsufficient protection to human participants and at the same timeassure an ethically responsible research (Moniz &amp Gorin, 2014).

Whileappreciating the role played by scientific research, more so, medicalresearch and its impact on increasing the quality of health caresystem, it should be appreciated that pursuing this nobleresponsibility should not be done at the expense of human right orhuman dignity. The aim of this policy is to provide comprehensiveguidelines that seek to protect the right of human participants inmedical research. It also aims at protecting the dignity and humanityby ensuring that the research community complete an ethically,morally and professional medical research. The policy also aims atproviding the direction to the aggrieved parties who wish to seekremedy when their right and obligations have been breached during amedical research procedure. The policy will improve the quality ofstudy and advance relationships between participants and the researchcommunity(Beyleveld,Townend &amp Wright, 2005).


Havingidentified an issue that warrants policy formulation, it isprofessional and realistic if it is supported by evidence. Althoughan issue may be attractive and appealing to the eyes of ordinarypeople, authorities work with evidence based on a real lifesituation. In this case, the numerous scandals and court battlesduring the 60`s and 70`s provide sufficient evidence to support theclaim. The other aspect is to prove in the proposed policy whetherthe policies will be effective in providing a solution to thisproblem. The policy should be efficient, valid and more so,implementable. Failure to meet these criteria renders a policyillegitimate. The policy I am proposing meets the above-statedcriteria. Secondly the course of action for the policy ought to beauthorized by the relevant authorities. Aware that the problems havebeen an issue in the medical fraternity, the authorities would bewilling to implement the policy to provide a remedy to the existingdilemma. The policy has a good sound technical analysis that willhelp in its successful implementation. A sound decision regarding theenactment of the policy may be based on my analysis of the problem.Thus, time, due diligence, and reasonable care ought to be utilized(Gupta,2011).

Processto Formulate the Policy

Thepreliminary stage would involve sending a proposal to the healthresearch authority. This is the authority mandated with theresponsibility of protecting patients and the public in medicalresearch. On the other hand, medical research is done by doctors,nurses, and pharmacists (Moniz &amp Gorin, 2014). Therefore, I wouldalso inform the doctors, nurses and pharmacist board of the intendedpolicy change. The second stage would be to seek the input of theauthorities and the public to make changes to improve the quality ofthe policy. Some of the issues that could have been omitted have tobe included. The input will then be included within the policy, andthe final draft is presented to HRA for subsequent enactment (Plomer,2005).


Basiclegislation stages would involve reading the policy to the relevantauthority through presenting a complete proposal. The Health ResearchAuthority acknowledges the need for policy to protect the rights ofhuman participants. The authority will then goes through the policyproposal and consider its effectiveness and whether it can beimplemented. When the proposal gains the green light, it is served tostakeholders and the public in general for input and suggestions. Aspecial committee has to debate the input and include any amendment.Depending on the authorities’ power and jurisdiction on the matter,the policy can be made a by-law, or further authority can be soughtfrom legislative bodies. Stakeholders can influence the legislator’sdecision since they rate experts in the field and understand theproblem better (Schildmann,2012).


Thepolicy implementation would be effected through the collectiveagreement between the authority and stakeholders. However, the policyimplementation date should not exceed six months after the policy ispassed. To protect the right of doctors, nurses, and physics, thepolicy would not be retrospectively applicable. HRA would be theauthority mandated to oversee the implementation of this policy. Theauthority is at liberty to delegate the responsibility to any otherbody within its jurisdiction, but the overall responsibility lieswith the authority. The government health care sector may, however,decide the primary body to implement the policy. For the publicsector, it would be done by hospitals and health care systems so asto educate and remind the participant on the existence of the policy.

AccountableParties in the Implementation

Theprimary party mandated to implement the policy would be the HealthResearch Authority. However, the doctors, nurses and pharmacist boardwould handle including the policy in its code of professionalconduct. The board would ensure that the ethical its members adhereto the laws and policy regulation regarding protection of humanparticipant in a medical research study. Also, the research teamswould be responsible for submitting written copies of the policies tovolunteers to inform them of their rights during the research study.HRA would handle handling all grievances, complaints and suggestionregarding breach of the guidelines stipulated in the policystatement. All stakeholders would be advised to observe their rolesand responsibilities to promote decency and human dignity in medicalresearch (Schildmann,2012).


Therights of human participants in medical research have been neglectedfor a long time. This is due to negligence by the authorities to copewith the pace in which research involving biological being isgrowing. Having identified the problem, it was my intention to enacta policy that would seek to protect the right of the participants. Voluntary participation has been breached in the past where sickpeople and the illiterate have been subjected to research withouttheir permission. Privacy has been breached in numerous situationsleading to many scandals. The policy would promote openness inmedical research and improve the relationship between participants.With successful enactment, HRA would oversee its implementation andapplication. It is my wish that the policy would seal the existingloophole and help promote the right of human participants in medicalresearch.


Beyleveld,D., Townend, D., &amp Wright, J. (2005). Researchethics committees, data protection, and medical research in Europeancountries.Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.

Gupta,S. (2011). Drugdiscovery and clinical research.New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. Medical Publishers.

Moniz,C., &amp Gorin, S. H. (2014). Healthcare policy and practice: A biopsychosocial perspective.

Plomer,A. (2005). Thelaw and ethics of medical research.London: Cavendish.

Schildmann,J. (2012). Humanmedical research.Basel: Springer.