Theworld is geographically mapped and categorized by use of sixelements, which are the essential pillars of geography itself. Theseelements are very critical in the study of geography across the worldand help make easier the study and understanding of real worldgeography. The first element is the study of the world in spatialterms. This is the study of relationships among people and places inspecial context. It helps give information about locations eitherabsolute or relative. When one says that they live at 68 south avenueDelaware or when saying the exact location of London as (40N, 29E),then we are giving absolute spatial locations. When using landmarksto explain our location like saying your office is near the Kennedymonument or a ten minute drive from the museum gate, then in realsense this is a reference to relative spatial location.

Placesand regions is another element of geography. These help give theidentities of people and characteristics of places that make themunique and identical. When a person talks about sand pyramids, Egyptcomes to mind and a discussion about hot, dry sandy deserts invokes athought about the Sahara desert region. Thus, places and regions is akey element in geography.

Aphysical system is an element referring to the features that changethe earth’s surface like volcanoes and earthquakes or theinterdependency between plants and animals for survival in thenatural ecosystem (National Geographic, n.d). Human systems areanother element of geography. These describe how people have shapedthe world through their movement, ideas and goods. These hasresulted in innovation of things like electronic gadgets andincreased trade between countries. In addition to these, environmentand society is another element. It is the interrelation betweenpeople and the environment. People plant trees for oxygen whereas thetrees on the other side help reduce soil erosion. Finally, uses ofgeography are another element of geography. They highlight therelationship among people, places and the environment. This can beevidenced by the construction of roads while caring for riversthrough bridges and pedestrians through flyovers.



Greenhouseeffect is a term used to explain how a planet’s surface gets warmedup through radiation from its atmosphere resulting in increase intemperatures more than what ought to have been in the absence of theatmosphere. The greenhouse effect comes about due to presence of somein the atmosphere that form a blanket cover above the earth’ssurface known as the greenhouse gases (National Geographic, n.d).

Themain greenhouse gases that bring about the greenhouse effect areozone, methane and water vapor. To some considerable extent, cloudsequally contribute to this effect by absorbing and emitting infraredradiations. This effect occurs when all layers of greenhouse gases inthe atmosphere absorb the heat being radiated upwards right from thesurface’s solar radiation and re-radiates the heat in alldirections in similar amounts as absorbed resulting in increasedwarmth below (National Geographic, n.d). Increase in the accumulationof these gases in the atmosphere results in increased levels ofabortion and re-radiation that proportionally warms the layers andthe surface beneath. Thus, resulting in increased temperatures in theearth’s surface.

Thisgreenhouse effect results in climate change with a core effect onincreased global warming. Global warming then leads to rise in waterlevels across various water bodies due to glacier and ice melting. Itcan also contribute to heat related diseases like diabetes. Further,global warming leads to other effects like provision of additionalcarbon dioxide for plants, longer growing seasons for plants, andreduction of energy required for heating in addition to bringingabout increased demand for additional sources of energy.

Greenhousegases can be considerably reduced by use of smart clean energy likegreen energy. Green energy helps eliminate the emission of poisonousgases like methane and carbon dioxide thereby helping reduce thegreenhouse effect.



Humandevelopment has been an exciting journey throughout the yearsaccording to history. It is documented that up to a period of aboutten thousand years ago, the generation of human beings then was at atotally different level of development. At this period of time, thehuman population was comprised of hunters and gatherers commonlyreferred to as the foragers. These people lived in small bands ofextended families without established homes but instead led a nomadiclife, moving from place to place scouting opportunities for food suchas foliage, fish, tubers and hunting wild animals. This meant thatthey had very little impact on the environment as they kept gettingon the move and have been greatly praised for their care of thenatural environment. They had a short life expectancy and used firesto chase away wild animals and this resulted to the current daysavannas.

Agriculturalrevolution then came in and the people started to produce food whichfurther resulted in the establishment of permanent settlements. Thiswas further advanced as time went by and at around 1750 C.E,industrial revolution came to place especially in Britain that wasmarked by establishment of factories. The demand for raw materialsled to colonization to acquire the much needed raw materials. Thisresulted in some countries becoming richer and others poor and hestory has not changed to date.


NationalGeographic, (n.d). GreenhouseGases.Retrieved From,