EFFECTS OF LANDMINES IN SUDAN

EFFECTS OF LANDMINES IN SUDAN

EFFECTS OF LANDMINES IN SUDAN 7

EFFECTSOF LANDMINES IN SUDAN

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Landmines are explosive devices thatare placed on the onthe ground to destroy and disable enemies. The devicesare capable of destroying combatants, their vehicles and even thetanks that attempt to pass over or near them.They maybe exposed or concealed. Theycan detonate by way of pressure such as when someone steps on them orwhen a vehicle drives over them,although,thereare other detonation mechanisms. Specifically, the explosion from aland mine causes damage through the use of a direct blast,thefragments that are dispersed by the blast or by both (Sidahmed&amp Sidahmed 2004,p.37). Thename emerged from the ancient use of landmines referred to asmilitary mining. The old military dugtunnels in areas where their enemies camped. Thefirst idea was to get thetunnels tocollapseandget theenemy trapped inside.Once trapped, more explosives were thrown in the tunnels to causemoreharm(Sidahmed&amp Sidahmed 2004,p.37).Currently,a landmine is any device that is manufactured to limit personnel ormotorcades. Although most of the improvised explosive devices areland mines, the word land mine specifically refers to the devicesthat are made and used by military personnel (Sidahmed&amp Sidahmed 2004,p.100).Theterm improvised explosive devices refersto the alternative devices that are similar to landmines butassembled by either the guerrilla insurgents or terrorist personnel.The use of landmines has always led to controversies due to theirindiscriminate nature. The devices are set to remain harmful manyyears after the war that led to their implantation. Currently, thereis a movement that is against the use of landmines- the internationalcampaign to ban landmines. The organizationisagainst both the use and the production of the explosive devices. Onehundred and sixty-one (161) nations are party to the Ottawa treatythat is in support of the campaign against landmines (Sidahmed&amp Sidahmed 2004,p.120).Sincethe year 1955, Sudan has been at war. The wars have left a legacybest described as lethal withlatent consequences. The country is made up of constant strife, greatbelligerents, diverse landmines, varying geographical layout anddiffering landmines injection techniques that shorten down any singleapproach to deal with . The legacy of the threat and the deadlinessof the threat is all crystal clear (Sidahmed&amp Sidahmed 2004,p.88).TheCountry illustrates a broad nature of the revulsions visited onasociety as a result of the land mine related problems. The horrorsrange from the imagination of a child that has experienced the painfrom an injury caused by a landmine to the overall glitches inform ofphysical, personal and the resultant mental trauma of an individual.The primary aim of the landmines is to instill societal sufferingthrough the infrastructure and economic destruction in a country.Specifically, whenever the problems occur to a state that is in thestruggle for its existence they can indicate a national calamity(Sidahmed&amp Sidahmed2004,p.88).Thecancer of Sudan’s landmines spreads all over the country. First,the Sudan society is agricultural in nature, and the farmers areafraid to use large tracts of land due to the fear of the landminesinfestation. There has been fear caused by news about the landminesdetonation by trucks and buses. The fright affects the economicconditions of the country. Specifically, majority of the landminesare located in SsouthernSudan. The infestation leaves behind a few passable roads. The roadsfurther contribute to the difficult task of delivery networks for thefarmers. In SsouthernSudan, mines are placednear precious water sources such as the Blue Nile. Many are the timesthat the mines are not in the soil but placed in thick grass. Otherminesarewrapped in plastic bags and strategically placed in streams orshallow pools (Sidahmed&amp Sidahmed 2004,p.88). Beforethe advent of the year 2004, ittook four hours to travel from Juba to other neighboring cities suchas Nimule and Kapoeta. Cycling wasthe safestmeans of transport.Four years have passed since South Sudan gained independence in theyear 2011.The landmines continue to be a threat by hindering movements,threatening the potential investors and frightening the return ofrefugees that had fled the land. The United Nations Mine ActionService(UNMAS)records that there area total 1,243landmine-related injuries and 3,158 deaths (Faulkner2007,p.60).Bernardiand Cheong (2012,p.126) asserts that (UNMAS)in conjunction with the United Nations Mine ActionCoordination Centre(UNMACC)set up a program to control the underlying menace in the country in 2011.Atotal of 4,273 anti-tank mines backed by a further 25,487 anti-minespersonnel weredeployedto the country.Specifically, the organization partnered with other governmental andnongovernmental organizations to reduce the threat and impact bydetonating and disarming the landminesTheanti-mine project began in the year 2004,Februaryandvarious private contractors to werecalled to conductthe demining project in South Sudan. First is the Mechem Companythat is asubsidiary of the Denel South African arms company. In a bid to takeadvantage in the Southern Sudan ceasefire, the company was contractedby the United Nations and began a mine survey operation close totheborder between Kenya and Sudan (Faulkner2007,p.60).Inaddition, theWorld Food Pprogramme(WFP)contracted the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action to conduct thedemining operations. The process was a bid to reduce the costs oftransporting the UN humanitarian aid from Kenyan bases in Lokichoggio(Bernardi&amp Cheong 2012,p.126).MechemCompany has a mine removal tracking record that dates back to theyear 1991. The company brought in vehicles, metal detectors,excavators, experienced personnel and sniffer dogs in a bid to mounta major operation(Levy&amp Latif 2008,p.33). Therewere several stakeholders behind the demining project thatincluded theLandmine Action Company from the United Kingdom, the Danish ChurchAidand ROCO that is a commercial demining company. The South Sudan non–governmental organization alsocreateda project dubbed “Operation save innocent lives”. Further, therewas an all-female demining team supported by the Norwegian PeoplesAid that was active in Yei. The South Sudan Demining Commission(SSDC) had identified a total of 1,653 areas classified as dangerous.A total of 30% that represents 559 locations wereclearedoffthe mines by the end of the year 2006(Levy&amp Latif2008,p.33).Bythe year 2014,the anti-mines team in South Sudan hadmade tremendous development. The team hadopened a total of 20, 047 kilometers in terms of roads. In the year2006 the UNMAShad calledfor the training of 140 Sudanese soldiers through the assistance ofthe British Army at the Kenya international mine action centerlocated in Nairobi. The soldiers were able to remove mines in thearea of 446 Kilometers from the Railway line located at theWau-Babanusa. Consequently, since the advent of the deminingprocesses in the year 2004, the government of Sudan released 1,067kilometers of land to the citizens (Levy &ampLatif2008,p.33).Inaddition to the demining operations, themainstakeholdersconducted mine risk educationand providedtraining to 1.5 million people.The educationmainpurpose wasto enable the Sudanese communities to stay safe while they livedin areas contaminated with mines. Thestakeholdersalso contributed in assistance provision to the survivors and thepeople with mine related disabilities. The main support involvedgiving prosthetics and other assistance to enhance their mobility.In addition, theyprovidedincome-generating projects to the survivors (Rutherford 2011,p.101).Inconclusion, the demining project cost the primary stakeholdersforty-three million United States Dollars. The moneywasdisbursed to the various agencies that were involved in the deminingprocess and in offering the mine risk related education. The figurealso includes the cost associated with the provision of annual victimassistance since the year 2005. The UNMASandother key stakeholders argued thatthe cost was worthas the processresulted intolower transportation cost by 40%. Besides, there is dense businessgrowth in Sudan withupto 65% ofnew startups per year (Matthew2004,p.56).TheWorld Food Programme indicated that the costs of transportinghumanitarian aid into South Sudan decreased by 75%. The reduction ismainly due to the shift from the use of air to road traffic.Comparatively, the organization notes that it currently takes threedays to travel from Juba to Nimule. The journey used to take fivedays before the demining process (Rutherford2011,p.101).References

Bernardi,D., &amp Cheong, P. (2012).&nbspNarrativeLandmines Rumors, Islamist Extremism, and the Struggle for StrategicInfluence.&nbspPiscataway:Rutgers University Press.

Faulkner,F. (2007).&nbspMoralentrepreneurs and the campaign to ban landmines.Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Levy,P. &amp Latif, Z.A., (2008).&nbspSudan&nbsp2nded., New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.

Matthew,R. (2004). Landmines and human security international politics andwar`s hidden legacy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Rutherford,K. (2011). Disarming states the international movement to banlandmines. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Sidahmed,A., &amp Sidahmed, A. (2004).&nbspSudan.New York, NY: Routledge.