Dementia Dementia

Dementia Dementia

DEMENTIA 3

Dementia

Dementia

Accordingto AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians (2012), Dementiais a set of disorders that emanate from the death of brain cells. Themajor symptoms include global, chronic and irreversible deteriorationin memory, impaired thinking, communication and impaired speech forthe aged. The probability of contacting the disorders increases withage to 5% for persons in the 71-79 age brackets. The average lifeexpectancy for patients with Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer diseaseis six years subsequent to diagnosis. There is a possibility forpatients with these conditions to live much longer (Arcangelo&amp Peterson, 2013).

Arcangeloand Peterson (2013) provide that thevarious available options to treat Dementia include therapy anddrugs. According to the Drugs.com(2012), theacetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat cognitive andneuropsychiatric symptoms. Examples of these drugs includegalantamine and rivastigmine. They increase the cognitive and globalfunction scores at 12 to 26 weeks compared with placebo. However,they are associated with as gastrointestinal side effects suchincluding anorexia, vomiting nausea and diarrhea (Arcangelo&amp Peterson, 2013).

Theantipsychotics are used to treat patients with psychological,behavioral and aggression symptoms of dementia. They, however,associated with an increased risk of severe events such as transientischemic, stroke, and even death. Memantine increases cognition andfunctional global scores for Alzheimer’s patients within 24 – 48weeks it is advisable to avoid the use of drugs unless the conditionnecessitates (AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, 2012).

Socialbehaviors such as alcohol-consumption and cigarette smoking affectthe metabolism of dementia treatment drugs. Specifically, alcoholintake increases the intensity of various side effects such asnausea, drowsiness, headaches, loss of coordination and hypotension.Consequently, the increased side effects magnify the toxicity inpharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic manners. The intake of alcoholwith dementia drugs may cause internal bleeding of the liver andother organs. It may also inhibit the action of sedatives on thebrain (Drugs.com,2012). Physicians advise patients to stop alcohol intake from the moment ofthe prescription as a measure to reduce the side effects (McNamara,2011).

References

AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians. (2012). Dementia. Retrieved fromhttp://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=5

Arcangelo,V. P., &amp Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeuticsfor advanced practice:Apractical approach(3rded.).Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins. Chapter 7,“Principles of Pharmacology in Pain Management” (pp. 79–95)

Drugs.com.(2012). Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/

LaureateEducation, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Pharmacologyfor the nervous system.Baltimore, MD: Author.

McNamara,P. (2011). Dementia.Santa Barbara, CA.: Praeger.