Definitions to Conceptions Adaptation

Definitions to Conceptions Adaptation

Definitionsto Conceptions

Adaptation

Guillaume(2010) defines social adaptation as conforming to the culture andlifestyle of people with different culture. An individual requiresunderstanding and adopting the symbols, models and values of theirnew society into their personality. Additionally, Baumeister andMuraven (1996) assert that adaptation is the process that individualsfind identity in a multicultural context. The authors observe thatadaptation in a sociocultural context leads to shedding oftraditional values, altered interpersonal behaviors and increasedtension between determination to achieve uniqueness and theimpenetrability to accomplish it (Baumeister &amp Muraven, 1996). Insummary, adaptation is critical change process that a complex systemenhances its intricacy via reducing its survival constraints(Guillaume, 2010).

Habilitation

Savage,Garceau, and Tomlinson (2012) describes habilitation as a therapeuticprocedure that intends to assist a person gain, retain or enhanceeither partially or entirely, and at distinct stages in life,experience associated with communication and daily life actions. Theobjective of the services is to improve capabilities andproficiencies that are indispensable for the finest functioning when interacting with the environment. For instances, habilitationcan help a student with learning disability understand academicconcepts that he or she could not have grasped in a normal classroomenvironment. Martz (2010) uses evidence-based approach to evaluatesuitable human dimensions to help victims of war and armed conflictsovercome the trauma they suffer.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitationis the process of reintegrating a convicted person into a society.Schneider (2014) asserts that the procedure is crucial as it preventsoccurrence of criminal activities. The approach is also called“criminal recidivism”, and its main objective is to overcomerecurrence of criminal activities. Cullen and Gendreau (2000) notethat the United States’ criminal justice system has introducedalternative correctional methods that aims at reducing the number ofincarcerated people such as probation orders and community servicesamong other methods that encompasses provision of guidance andaftercare of the offenders. Singer (1998) describes teenagers asvulnerable individuals to criminal activities due to peer-pressureand lack of mature decisions. As such, minor offenders requirespecial social rehabilitation systems such as peer groups.

Integration

Ferguson(2008) defines social integration as a process whereby the people ina give society develop mutually dynamic and principled relationships.Each person voluntarily agrees to follow specific regulations thatfocus on achieving a just, safe and stable environment. Theintegration eliminates factors that may lead to broken relationshipsamong people such as social polarization, exclusion andfragmentation. It also enhances cohesion, co-existence andcollaboration among people in a give community (Guralnick, 1999).

Socialreintegration

Socialreintegration refers to specialized support offered to convicts whenthey re-entering the society after undergoing correction measures. Onthe same note, it also includes the intervention techniques that lawenforcers undertake, after arresting an offender, to as analternative means of correcting offenders from the criminal justicesystem (Sumnall &amp Brotherhood, 2012). The substitute methodsinclude imposition of community-based restrictions instead of a jailtime and registration with rehabilitation centers for drug-addicts. Social reintegration helps to protect potential inmates from themarginalization and other adverse effects that often result fromincarceration (Griffiths, Dandurand, &amp Murdoch, 2007).The drugaddicts are also supposed to register with rehab centers that canhelp them overcome substance addiction instead of locking them upwith hardcore inmates who cannot help them overcome the addictionproblem.

Re-socialization

Re-socializationinvolves controlling the environment of an individual with theintention of radically controlling his or her environment. Forinstance, new soldiers are placed under strict discipline toradicalize them into adopting military principles. On the same note,resocialization is necessary for inmates who have served long jailterms when they come back to the civilian communities (Kennedy &ampKerber, 1972). Members of cohesive units such as the armed forces mayalso need assistance to be adjusted to live in ordinary society beingin the service for a long time. The purpose of resocialization is tohelp an individual get rid of violent tendencies, criminal activitiesand independency as well as unsuitable practices in the society(Petersen, Jensen, Nielsen, Jarvad, Mamsen, &amp Horslund, 2012).

Deprivation

Socialdeprivation results when a person is culturally restricted frominteracting with the rest of the society members in a normal way. Theresult of the deprivation is social exclusion of the targeted peoplefrom enjoying the full benefits of having access to anyone in a givensociety (Bardin, 2012). Some of the common causes that may resultinto the social deprivation include a contagious disease, poverty,language barrier, socioeconomic status, poor education and poverty(Dowswell &amp Towner, 2001).

References

Guillaume,S. (2010). The concept of adaptation : Interdisciplinary scope andinvolvement in climate change. S.A.P.I.EN.S [Online], 3 (1). Retrieved on 23 Sept. 2015 from http://sapiens.revues.org/997

Baumeister, F R. &amp Muraven, M. (1996). Identity as adaptation to social,cultural, and historical context. Journalof Adolescence, 19, 405–416. Retrived fromhttp://www.albany.edu/~muraven/publications/promotion%20files/articles/baumeister%20&amp%20muraven,%201996.pdf

Savage,M., Garceau, K. &amp Tomlinson, J. (2012). New York State benchmarkplan recommendations. NewYork State Occupational Therapy Association Inc. web.Retrieved on 23 Sept. 2015fromhttp://www.healthcarereform.ny.gov/timeline/2012-0802_exchange_stakeholder/docs/nys_ot_pt_speech.pdf

Martz,E. (2010). Traumarehabilitation after war and conflict: Community and individualperspectives.New York: Springer.

Schneider,S. (2014). Crimeprevention: Theory and practice (2nded). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Cullen,F.T &amp Gendreau, P. (2000). Assessing correctional rehabilitation:Policy, practice, and prospects. Policies, Processes and Decisions ofthe Criminal Justice System, 3. Retrieved fromhttp://www.d.umn.edu/~jmaahs/Correctional%20Assessment/cullen%20and%20gendreau_CJ2000.pdf

Singer,S. I. (1998). Recriminalizingdelinquency: Violent juvenile crime and juvenile justice reform.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ferguson,C. (2008). Promotingsocial integration. UnitedNations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) for theExpert Group Meet report.Helsinki, Finland. Retrieved fromhttp://www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/SE6.pdf

Guralnick,J.M. (1999). Integration for young children with mild developmentaldelays in Inclusive Settings. Journalof Early Intervention,22(1), 70–86

Sumnall,H. &amp Brotherhood, A. (2012). Social reintegration and employment:evidence and interventions for drug users in treatment. EMCDDA,Lisbon.Retrieved on 23 Sept. 2015 fromhttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&amprct=j&ampq=&ampesrc=s&ampsource=web&ampcd=5&ampcad=rja&ampuact=8&ampved=0CDoQFjAEahUKEwj4hNHCqY7IAhUH7hoKHWjaAFY&ampurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.emcdda.europa.eu%2Fattachements.cfm%2Fatt_189819_EN_TDXD12013ENC_Web-1.pdf&ampusg=AFQjCNEOdHF_qgJrvs3yHPPMUFjs5jYy7Q&ampsig2=wwywXD5SFUhTblNWIZ9x7Q

Griffiths,C.T., Dandurand, Y. &amp Murdoch, D. (2007). The InternationalCentre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy (ICCLR).Public Safety Canada.http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/scl-rntgrtn/index-eng.aspx

Petersen,E.J., Jensen, M., Nielsen, N.B, Jarvad, B. G., Mamsen, J.H., &amp Horslund, O. (2012). Punishment and resocialization. InternationalBachelor Programme in Social Science.Retrieved fromhttp://dspace.ruc.dk/bitstream/1800/9615/3/F%C3%A6rdigtProjekt.pdf

Kennedy,D. B., &amp Kerber, A. (1972). Resocialization:an American experiment.New York: Behavioral Publications.

Dowswell,T. &amp Towner, E. (2001). Social deprivation and the prevention ofunintentional injury in childhood: a systematic review. HealthEduc.17 (2):221-237. doi: 10.1093/her/17.2.221. Retrieved fromhttp://her.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/2/221.full

Bardin,J. (2012, 24 July). Social deprivation hurts child braindevelopment, study finds. Los Angeles Times, retrievedon 24 Sept.2015 fromhttp://articles.latimes.com/2012/jul/24/science/la-sci-orphan-brains-20120724