Coastal Ecosystem Issues

Coastal Ecosystem Issues

CoastalEcosystem Issues

CourseInstructor

Conceptsof a system have been a study that has revolved around every field inthe education sector. Many systems exist but what is still a matterof contention is about the assumption of a closed system. In myhonest opinion, no such system can exist in the world we are leavingtoday. I arrest that case and leave it for further discussion. Infact, systems are complex and interrelated such that one system willalways be a sub-system of another. For the purpose of thisassignment, I would use the two-stock system representing a renewablestock constraint by a renewable stock. Coastal ecosystems areaffected by climatic changes majorly through global warming. Thepopulation growth has pushed for industrialization which is the mainsupply of the greenhouse gases responsible for global warming in theworld. To satisfy the demand of the population, industrialization isborne as a result. Corrective measure like protecting the forest andchecking on the energy use and population growth is the loop whichtries to rectify the situation.

CoastalIssues

Whenthe name coastal line is mentioned, what first is likely to hit themind of an individual? Probably it would be about a family vacationor a crane offloading containers from ships. The coastline of anycountry is a very important resource, and the important will not beoveremphasized. However, due to the recent advancement in technologyand an abrupt industrialization era, the coast has been hit byvarious issues. Flooding and hurricane are a major occurrence alongthe major coastal line in the world, and their resulting loss of lifeand resources is catastrophic. Pollution in the sea has been on therise in recent years following poor sewerage management anduncontrolled waste disposal by major industries. Population increaseis also another major issue in the coastal environment caused by therural, urban migration. Climate change is of cause the mega issuethat the coastal environment is facing. Astonishingly, government andother authorities are less concerned about the climate change effecton the coastline. Destruction of the environment along the coastalline through deforestation and cutting down the highly cherishedmangrove trees is disastrous. The effect is felt far and wide becausethese issues affect the stability of the coastal people determinetheir economic well-being and population variables. The coastalsystem is a complex system, and its stability has been an issue ofconcern following the issues it is facing (Cicin-Sain,Knecht, Jang &amp Fisk, 2008).

ClimateChange

Let`sfirst comprehensively discuss the climatic change issue. Climate iscontrolled by a feedback loop mechanism. Some of the factors thataffect climatic change are also affected by a system loop themselves.For instance, the population level is one of the factors that affectpopulation. Population, on the other hand, is affected by theeconomic wellbeing and economic level of the composition of thepopulation. This goes far in completing the factors that could bringthe system into equilibrium. Better methods of production have to beinvented in production in order to meet demand of the exponentiallyrowing mechanism. The methods use energy from fossil fuels in largequantities, hence, increased production of the green house gases.

Howdo climatic changes lead to flooding along the coast? For the mosttime in the history, sea and ocean levels have been stable. Withindustrialization, the global temperature started to rise. This wasdue to a destruction of the ozone layer in the planet’s atmosphereresponsible for filtering the dangerous sun rays. The destruction ofthis layer have been caused by emission of greenhouse gases dominatedby both carbon dioxide and methane.in the last thirty years or so,emission of these greenhouse gases have increased more than fivehundred percent. Production of these gases has been high inindustrialized and developing countries. However, the effect of theirharm to the ozone layer is being felt by all the residents of theplanet (Kay&amp Alder, 2005).

Accumulationof methane is as a result of the use of fossil fuels, rice growing,landfill emissions and also cattle rising. Chlorofluorocarbons arethe principle gas behind ozone layer depletion. These gases reducethe ability of the earth to radiate infra-red energy from the earthto space. As a result, the global temperature rises. A rise in globaltemperature is the main cause of depletion of ice deposits all overthe world. Major mountains have been depleted off their ice depositsdue to global warming. The north and the southern hemispheres areundergoing a fast and massive ice melting. The effect is a rise inthe water levels in our seas and oceans. Those coastal areas that areway low lying are at risk of flooding and far worse submerging intothe ocean. This leads to deaths of very many people and destructionof properties worth millions. It also leads to the emergence ofrefugees for the victims within their country since some end uplosing all their investment. This is how the system is so intertwinedand in the end seems to be affecting all the aspects of a person`slife. A rise in sea level also brings a problem to the transportationusing this medium (Smith,2004).

Exposureto direct sun rays from the sun due to depletion of the ozone layersis equally dangerous. Apart from an increase in the globaltemperature, other harmful effects are likely to occur to people.There would be increased in malnutrition and by extension, theconsequent disorder that will have adverse implication on the growthand development in children. An increase in the number of deaths as aresult of diseases, injury from heat waves, floods, fire and alsodrought. Research also has evident that the exposure is going toincrease the burden of diarrheal infections. The frequency ofcardiovascular diseases is likely to increase occasioned by theconcentration of ground level ozone related changes in the climate.It is also a pity to note that most of these effects would be abruptas opposed to the oblivious believe that it would be gradual. Therate at which the climate is changing is exponential, and the effortsin place to reduce the effects do not match, hence, the instability(Klein,2014).

Pollution

Pollutionis another major challenge facing the coast. Shocking statisticsindicates that 80% of pollution of the sea comes from the mainlandand not near the sea. Increases number of factories in the coastregion due to their strategic location has increased the rate ofemission of greenhouse gases, and their effects have been discussedabove. The other challenge comes in water pollution. Agriculturalactivities are not dominant in coastal regions around the world.Fishing is, however, an important economic activity for the peopleliving on the coast. Water pollution causes the massive death of fishand also inhibits their growth. Draining of poisonous seweragecomposition is dangerous and may wipe out the entire population offish. Due to increased and advanced fishing technics, the level offishing may lead to depletion. This can lead to desertification ofthe sea. In fact, studies have shown that if the current fishingpatterns continues, we are likely to deplete all the fish by 2050.Astonishing! Failure to control the industry may result tojoblessness for some coastal people by then (Perkins,2011).

Deforestation

Massivecutting of the mangrove trees along the coast is equally an issue ofconcern. Who does not understand the importance of trees? Rees usescarbon dioxide for photosynthesis and can be a huge investment thatreduces the number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Lumberinghas overridden the noble importance of trees in environmentalcleaning. Most loggers cut trees for economic purposes that are notbad. However, a check should be established to avoid deforestation.Furthermore, mangrove tree takes a long time to grow to maturity, andonce a forest of mangrove is cleared, it could take at least threegenerations to restore it (Prøsch-Danielsen &amp Simonsen, 2000).

Conclusion

Thecoastal region is not alienated from the rest of the land. It is partand parcel of the global system, and its stability is affected byactivities in other regions. Like other parts, the coast is facedwith many challenges and climate change is the dominant factor.Changes in climate are a result of the human economic activities.Pollution and deforestation along the coast are the other closelyrelated issues that have affected the climate changes. Like awell-organized system, all the factors affect the basic economicactivities of the inhabitants. Governments need to put extra effortto restore the stability of the coastal regions. The issue of climatechange had been neglected for a long time, and it is the time wefaced it with rejuvenated efforts.

References

Cicin-Sain,B., Knecht, R., Jang, D., &amp Fisk, G. (1998). Integratedcoastal and ocean management.Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Kay,R., &amp Alder, J. (2005). Coastalplanning and management.London: Taylor &amp Francis.

Klein,N. (2014). Thischanges everything.New York: Simon &amp Schuster.

Perkins,S. (2011). Ecology: Climate relief. NatureClimate Change.doi:10.1038/nclimate1030

Prøsch-Danielsen,L., &amp Simonsen, A. (2000). Thedeforestation patterns and the establishment of the coastal heathlandof southwestern Norway.Arkeologisk museum i Stavanger.

Smith,A. (1994). Coastal protection in the Pacific Island regions: Issuesand needs. Ocean&amp Coastal Management,25(1),53-61. doi:10.1016/0964-5691(94)90068-x