CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER2: LITERATURE REVIEW

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Tableof Content

Introduction 3

Fastfood industry in India 3

Consumptionof Fast Food In USA, Health Problems and Obesity Level 6

Fastfood in UAE 9

Healtheffect of junk food 10

References 12

Introduction

Thischapter is a representation of a review with reference to theexisting literature regarding the areas of junk food, fast food andits increased consumption among the people in the modern society andrelevance to this study. This chapter will focus on earlier doneresearch on the same topic in other regions, the reason behind theincreased attraction of people towards the taking of food,development of fast food, and the link between fast food business andtaking of junk food among people. This chapter also goes ahead toprovide scrutiny as well as provide reviews on various prior studiesthat have been conducted in this field. Additionally, otherliterature relates to the topic in question and from credibleorganizations and appropriate to the research problem for thisresearch question has also been evaluated. In this regard, a set ofarguments will be experienced to show how people have been attractedto the fast food eateries, which has been related to the intake andattraction of people towards fast food, and junk food. Lastly, thechapter will review past review with reference to the effects of junkfood intake. In addition to why the intake of junk continues toincrease even with the increased campaign against the type of foodfrom fast food joints.

FastFood Industry In India

Astudy conducted in India by the National Restaurant Association ofIndia (NRAI) in 2010 discovered that the fast food industry in Indiahas been growing at a compound yearly development rate of 35-40% forevery penny. A noteworthy lump of these business sectors was ruled byworldwide players like McDonald`s, Yum! Brands (Kentucky FriedChicken, Pizza Hut), Domino`s, Subway, Taco Bell, Coca Cola andBarista. However, household players in the fast food industry werenot lingering behind. Nirula`s, Pizza Corner, Coffee Day Bunch,Haldiram`s, Bikanervala caught a decent amount of the fast foodsection.

Thestudy identified a number of reasons for the consumption of junk foodin India. To start with, junk foods have a high visibility. They areeasily accessible by consumers due to their availability in everycorner. Furthermore, junk foods are widely advertised through variousmedia reaching a huge audience who are duped into purchasing thesame. Moreover, junk food makers and merchants additionally take aplan of action to pack the food in appealing form using additives andcolors to improve texture and flavor, appearance, and shelf life,therefore attracting the consumers into eating the junk food (NRAI,2010).

Finally,the study found out that the key target for junk food was theyoungsters. Findings over the seven states in which the study wasconducted, in urban and rustic zones, there was a developing andconsiderable rate of individuals eating fast food. People ate less ofsoil, foods and more of the junk. This study is of use to my researchsince it highlights some of the reasons why people may be attractedto junk food. It also cites some of the key business giants in thefast food industry and the actions they take so as to improve sales.The article also compared the taking of junk food among the Indiansand the Americans. The researchers arrived at the conclusion that,the cultural definition contributes immensely to the food cultureamong the Indians and the Americans. In addition, the study haslooked into what does the cultural practices impact the taking ofjunk food among people in India.

Oneof the contentious issues that have come along in regard to junk foodis the relation between healthy eating and junk food. In a studyconducted in 2005, by the ‘People journal, and published byFrontiers in Psychology it aimed to determine the relationshipbetween junk food and appetite for other healthy foods. In the study,two groups of subjects were fed on different foods. The first groupwas given the typical food. The second group was fed on highlyprocessed foods, including cookies, meat pies and cakes. After twoweeks, a general observation was made on the subjects feeding on junkfood. They lost their desire for the normal, healthy foods. This ledto the conclusion that junk food is addictive, therefore, leading tocontinuous consumption among its consumers despite its lownutritional value. Junk food contains chemicals such as triglyceridesand monosodium glutamate in higher quantities. These chemicals alterthe brain chemistry and are addictive just like cocaine (Johnson et.al., 2012).

Thisstudy is important as it explains how junk food can be addictiveleading to loss of appetite for the normal nutritious food. Such anaddiction can be used to explain the continuous intake of junk fooddespite health education on the negative effects of junk food. Peopleshould therefore avoid taking junk foods for prolonged periods oftime and concentrate on healthy foods to avoid addiction to junkfood. However, from a business point of view, addiction to junk foodpromotes sales and customer loyalty on the fast food products.

Anotherstudy conducted by Guidetti et. al., (20110) in the University ofTexas researchers concurs with people’s findings. The study citesthat prolonged intake of junk food reduces the brain activity in thestriatum, which is responsible for registering reward. As a result,the person eating the junk food requires increasing amounts of thejunk food just like a drug addict. The researchers also discovered asimilarity in dopamine production among drug addicts and fast foodaddicts. Moreover, the receptors in the brain lose theirresponsiveness to dopamine stimulation. This implies that junk foodaddicts require ever increasing amounts of junk foods over time Iorder to receive the same satisfaction level.

Therefore,junk food addicts desire more and more of the junk food. As theysatisfy these desires, it becomes hard for them to stop eating suchjunk food. Consequently, their use of junk foods increases, leadingto a higher demand of junk foods. Junk food vendors take advantage ofthis opportunity to expand their business, as explained by the highgrowth rate of fast food companies such as McDonalds.

Consumptionof Fast Food In USA, Health Problems and Obesity Level

Oneof the regions that have seen a massive increase in the taking offast food is the united states. Additionally, numerous researcheshave been conducted to evaluate the driving force behind peopletaking fast foods, despite the downside related to the junk food.Accruing to a research by Kroshus (2008), he examined the correlationbetween sexual orientation, marital status, and commercially preparedfast food expenditure in the USA. They reported reasons in theJournal of Nutrition Education and Behavior (p. 355-360) “Thisstudy is to assess how per capita expenditure on commerciallyprepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by thesex and marital status of the head of the household.’’Proportionate per capita family unit consumption of fast foods wasfound to fluctuate by marital status and sexual orientation. Familiesheaded by unmarried men (both separated/isolated and never wedded)spent more money on fast foods than their wedded male counterparts.The study found that unmarried men spent 38% more money than marriedmen.

Regardlessof the marital status, family units headed by ladies were found tospend more or less 33% of their total food spending plan on fastfoods outside the home. Families headed by men who had never weddedspent 63% more per capita than those headed by ladies who have neverbeen married (Kroshus, 2008). Finally, the study confirmed thatdivorced men spent more money on fast foods than divorced women. Thisstudy is important as it proves that marital status is a determinantof fast food consumption in the family step up. It also reflects themain target groups for fast foods to be men. In light of the highrates of separation, men are at a higher risk of changing theirdietary habits to junk foods.

Inaddition to finding the link between fast food, and some healthproblems, one of the issues that Kroshus (2008), looked to address isthe rate at which obesity is becoming a menace in the united states.According to his article, he found that, junk food availability inthe United States, schools have a positive relation to the children’sBMI, and the rate of obesity among school going children. However,the article was quick to identify that, it’s the unhealthyingredients used in the fast food that contributes to obesity.

Astudy conducted in Australia by Brindal (2010) highlighted in therise in obesity in the country due to excessive intake of fast foods.The study highlighted that the main reason why people eat fast foodsis because of social influences. Food decisions are complex andaffected by the different environments. According to their model,eating takes place in a “zone of biological indifference.” Socialnorms and cues can lead to over consumption of fast foods. Twotheoretical perspectives explain the social influences on fast foodintake. The modelling and social normative theory which cites thatlearning occurs through observation. Some people take fast foods fromcopying others, especially during childhood. The second theoryaffecting fast food intake is the social facilitation theory citesthat the social norms of eating fast foods influence the groupmembers into taking fast foods (Brindal, 2010). Therefore, the socialcontext should be put into consideration before putting up a fastfood business.

Schlosser(2001), pointed out the main reason why people eat fast-food wasaffected by an interplay of many factors. These are social, economic,and technological factors. The social factors that have led to a risein the consumption of fast foods include the entry of women in thejob market, leaving less time for activities such as cooking healthyfood. The improvement of the economy has ensured that people,especially the young have money to spend on fast foods. He estimatedthat half of the money spent on food is used in fast foods inrestaurants. Moreover, technological advances such as online orderingof these fast foods, good infrastructure ensuring quick delivery ofthe order, and quick preparation of fast food has encouraged peopleto increase their junk food intake as opposed to healthy diets.

Thisstudy is important as it outlines the multifaceted nature ofconsumption of junk foods among the population. It addresses thecharacteristics of a society that is at risk of fast food consumptionin terms of the economy, social factors, and technology. The studyoffers insight on the market characteristics to consider beforesetting up a fast food business so as to know the target market thatis likely to consume fast foods.

Zahraet. al., (2013) study is in line with Schlosser’s in that theydiscovered that the main reason why people prefer restaurants and thefast foods that they offer is because of the time factor. Accordingto Zahra et. al., (2010), people lead busy lifestyles due to work,family and other demands. As a result, they lack time to preparehealthy homemade foods as it takes time to cook and serve whencompared to fast foods. The quick service in restaurants aimed atpromoting customer satisfaction encourages individuals who want tosave time to take fast foods.

Inaddition to fast foods being quick and easy to be served, fast foodrestaurants are social places where people spend time with family andfriends as opposed to the home environment (Zahra et. al., 2010).During such a time, people end up ordering junk foods from theserestaurants. This study crucial in bringing out some of therequirements for success of a fast food business. Therefore, for abusiness to be prosperous in the fast food industry, it shouldincorporate systems that promote customer satisfaction and serve thefoods promptly. Such business should also have a conduciveenvironment where people can relax and spend time together.

Drewnowskiand Specter (2005) contend that the major determinant of fast foodconsumption is the socioeconomic status of a person. According toDrewnowski and Specter (2005) “Thereare differences in eating between people who have high wages withpeople who is having low wages in their life.” The poor go forcheap food which is normally nutritionally balanced and healthy. Thewealthy, on the other hand, prefer expensive and branded foods andrestaurants without paying attention to the nutritional content ofthe food. Therefore, according to Drewnowskiand Specter (2005), the rich take more junk food than the poor.

Thegeographical location is also another factor affecting fast foodintake (Drewnowski &ampSpecter 2005). People living in rural werefound to take less junk food than people who lived in the urbancenters. Thus, this study cites the ideal places to locate a fastfood business. Such a location should play host to people of highereconomic status for the business to make high sales. It should alsobe located in the urban centers where the consumption of fast foodsis likely to be high.

FastFood In UAE

Astudy conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) by Martin Fabel,Emanuele Savona, and Sharon Serrao (2013) revealed that the risingincome levels in the UAE have led to the growth of the food retailbusiness. The food retail business in the UAE has grown by 7%annually from 2007 to 2012 presenting a huge opportunity forinvestment. These findings were consistent with those from A. TKearney Global Consumer Institute study, which confirmed that highaverage earning made GCC consumers spent more on food. In addition,the per capita income grew by 5.4% and the population grew by 3.5%,increasing the demand for food with more people consuming fast foods.

Thestudy concludes that food retailers, manufacturers, and distributorshave a place in the fast food industry in the GCC countries,therefore, they should act fast before the portions are taken byother firms (Fabel et. al., 2013). This study is important in thefast food business as it depicts the picture and opportunities in thefast food business in the GCC countries Abu Dhabi being part of it.It highlights the need for quick decision making and investmentbefore the available opportunities are seized by other players.Finally, the article is also in line with several others citing thatthe income of the population plays a key role in determining theiruse of fast foods. Therefore, the fast food business investmentshould be located in the highest income area.

HealthEffect Of Junk Food

Despitethe increased concern that has been raised by health related researchover the effects of taking junk food, there has been increase inhealth problems related to junk food intake. According to Datar &ampNicosia (2012), there has been a growing distress relating to thetaking of junk foods in school. The availability of junk food inschool has immensely contributed to the epidemic of childhoodobesity. The findings have revealed that, the increase in the intakeof junk food among school going children have been contributed bydifferent factors. These entail reasons such as availability of thefast food joints. The intake of first food has been on the rise,despite the related health concerns. However, the article concludesthe research with the remark that, the motivation for taking food infast-food eateries differs with age, sex, education, employed or not,household size among other determinants.

Inconclusion, the above studies have proved that there is a rise in theconsumption of fast foods in Abu Dhabi and in the world at large. Thefast food industry is continuously growing at unprecedented ratesyearly. Consequently, the fast food industry presents a lot ofbusiness opportunities which can be grabbed promptly. The studieshave also cited various reasons for consumption of fast foods. Thebusiness should, therefore, consider these reasons and capitalize onthem to realize maximum revenues, profits, market share, and customerloyalty. The arguments above have attempted to review on researcheson junk food, and the factors that lead to people being attracted tothem (junk food). The focus has been on different regions, and inturn different conclusions were drawn from the articles reviewed. Forexample, factors behind why people are attracted to junk food, variesfrom financial capability, availability to cultural aspects. The mainfocus of this study is to examine why people are attracted to thetaking of junk food, despite the health concerns of the same.

References

Brindal,E. (2010). Exploring fast food consumption and social influence.

Drewnowski,A. &amp Spectrer N., (2005). The role of energy density. Lipids,38(2),109-115.

Fabel,M., Savona, E., &amp Serrao, S. (2013). A generous helping of foodretail growth in the GCC. RisingIncome Levels And Dishing Out Abudant Servings Of Food Retail In GCC,3-11.

Guidetti,M., Cavazza, N., &amp Conner, M. (2010). Social influence processeson adolescents food likes and consumption: the role of parentalauthoritativeness and individual self-monitoring. JAppl Soc Psychol,n/a-n/a.

Johnson,S., Sahu, R., &amp Saxena, P. (2012). Nutritional Analysis of JunkFood.

Kroshus,E. (2008). Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared FoodExpenditure. Journalof Nutrition Education And Behavior,40(6),355-360.

NRAI,(2010). NRAIreport 2010.Retrieved 23 September 2015, from http://nrai.org/

People,J. (2015). JunkFood Subjects Ditch Balanced Diet to Eat Just Like Obese People.Science2.0.Retrieved 23 September 2015, fromhttp://www.science20.com/the_conversation/junk_food_subjects_ditch_balanced_diet_to_eat_just_like_obese_people-143722

Schlosser,E. (2001). Fastfood nation.Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Zahra,J., Ford, T., &amp Jodrell, D. (2013). Cross-sectional survey ofdaily junk food consumption, irregular eating, mental and physicalhealth and parenting style of British secondary school children.Child:Care, Health and Development,40(4),481-491.

Datar,A., &amp Nicosia, N. (2012). Junk Food in Schools and ChildhoodObesity.&nbspJournalOf Policy Analysis &amp Management,&nbsp31(2),312-337.