Buenos Aires Airport Operations By (name)

Buenos Aires Airport Operations By (name)

BUENOS AIRES AIRPORT OPERATIONS 5

Buenos Aires Airport Operations

By (name)

The name of the class

The name of the school

The city/state

The date

Buenos Aires isthe main capital city of Argentina and is the largest city in thecountry with a sum of over 2.6 million people. There have been greatchanges in the transport sector in the country and the city. Forexample, air transport that is traditionally expensive is becomingmore popular due to competition and price changes over the recentyears. Buenos Aires is served by Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport(AEP) and MinistroPistarini International Airport (Ezeiza). AEPserves mainly as a domestic and regional airport but has someinternational departures while Ezeiza is approximately 30 kilometersfrom Buenos Aires downtown and offers both national and internationalservice. This paper focuses on the study of the two airports servingthe Argentina’s capital. The physical design and capacitylimitations of the AEP are discussed with its impact on the city’sair transport service. The current situation of the city in regard tothe two airports is assessed, and a proposal is made for the city andthe airports to improve transport system in and out of the city.

Question 1

Physicaldesign of an airport

The physicaldesign and capacity of an existing airfield and access facilitiesinfluences its ability to accommodate current and future demands(LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010). Effective planning of airportsduring construction of new ones or expansion is an important task asit ensures delivery of the present demand without necessarilyaffecting addressing future demands. The physical design of airportsis associated with aviation risks and accessibility of the airportservices by customer (LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010). According toLANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010) the physical design and capacitylimitations of an airport should take into account multitude safety,operational, commercial, financial and environmental considerationsand this therefore means that appropriate airport terminal planningand design makes operational activities easy and efficient.

The airportterminal is the central building of any airport. The design of theterminal should ensure the provision of the good level of service tothe users and the plan and design of the overall terminal facility isdetermined by requirements to accommodate maneuvering aircraft andground access systems (EDWARDS B. (2004). The airport terminalconsists of airside, terminal and landside. The figure belowrepresents general airport terminal complex.

Figure1:General Airport Terminal. (EDWARDSB. (2004).

Planning anddesign of airside terminal facilities should consider gaterequirements and locating aircraft parking positions and their taxilanes that optimize efficiency of the airfield prior to developingthe internal layout of the terminal building and landside curd andterminal roadway system (EDWARDS B. (2004). The efficiency ofairfield operations influences the overall efficiency of travelersprocessing through the terminal and the ability of aircraft to parkat the terminal and maneuvering safely around the airfield withconsideration to taxi lane requirement based on the FAA AdvisoryCirculars is also affected by the airfield operations efficiency(EDWARDS B. (2004). According to (EDWARDS B. (2004) there areprimary considerations that must be taken into account in the airsidecomponent of the terminal they include the following.

• Aircraftparking restrictions

• Aircraftmaneuvering i.e. pushback areas, taxiway/taxi lane requirements

• Aircraftparking i.e. terminal gates, remote aircraft parking positions

• Aircraftparking apron

• Apronservice roads, ground service management

•Environmental characteristics

• Securityand emergency response

Due to theever-evolving aviation industry, airport terminal buildings should beconstructed such that it does not hinder future modifications tomeeting the trending technological features of terminal buildings(EDWARDS B. (2004). LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010) also argues thatthey should be flexible to accommodate for future advances at minimalexpense and addressing the various demands of passengers, airlines,and aircraft. When the terminal buildings are not flexible andbalanced, the airport management will not be able to meet strategicgoals and FAA requirements. There are key functional and operationaldrivers such business factors and the local communities that shouldbe considered when planning and designing terminals (EDWARDS B.(2004). They include Concessions planning Security planningMovement of people and baggage Information technologySustainability and demand management concepts and Programmaticparameters

The planning anddesign of landside terminal facilities influence the overalltravelers’ perceptions of the efficiency and user friendliness ofthe terminal (EDWARDS B. (2004). This part of terminalprovides an interface between the airport and regional groundstransportation system. The design should allow passenger connectivitybetween various points of the landside access to the terminal by road(EDWARDS B. (2004). Poor design is characterized with congestionsresulting from pedestrian and vehicular movements on the landside.Expansion of the landside facilities to cater for future demands isdetermined by how proactive planning of the landside is (LANDRUM &ampBROWN (2010). Curb and roadway systems are mainly found in thelandside part of the airport.

Walking distanceis another crucial consideration that should be made when planningand designing airport terminals. Airports should be designed in a waythat walking is minimized to a greater extent. Passenger walkingdistance according to IATA should be a maximum of between “….820and 985 feet unaided and up to 2, 133 feet with moving walkways”(Landrum &amp Brown 2010, 38). Availability of mover systems such asescalators in airports is important in minimizing time and distancethat passenger takes while in the airport. Congestion of travelers,meters/greeters, employees, etc. can be addressed by people moversystems. Passenger Bridge can also be constructed in the terminal toreduce congestion just like in Gatwick Airport in London. Generally,the design and plan of airport and its terminals is influenced bystrategic goals of the airport management, balance, level of service,passenger convenience, flexibility, security, way finding andterminal signage, accessibility and maintenance.

Airportcapacity limitations

The capacity ofan airport in an important determinant of the number of aircrafts theairport can handle annually as well as the number of passengers(CHENG, V.H.L. 2002). Capacity limitations have been enforcedby international bodies on transport especially in air transport dueto the impacts of aircrafts on the surrounding environment. The majorfactors that influence airport capacity limitations include Aircraftperformance characteristics Wake vortex turbulence Airfield andairspace configuration Weather Aircraft noise ATC equipment andprocedures Demand considerations

Thecharacteristics of the aircraft in terms of size, aerodynamics,propulsion, avionics and braking performance determine the capacityof the runway of the airside of an airport (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002).They tend to increase with a capacity of the runway that canaccommodate them. The capacity of airport influences the pilotregarding the training, experience, and skills in order to operatethe aircraft on its runways. Pilot experience and training determinesthe performance of runways. The capacity of runways determines thetypes of aircrafts using it. Good examples are the two airports ofBuenos Aires, AEP, and Ezeiza (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002). Since AEPis mainly for domestic flights and regional flights, its runwaycapacity cannot accommodate the larger aircrafts that use the runwaysof Ezeiza, which are higher capacities. In AEP airport, there isdiverse traffic mix with jets and propeller aircrafts that vary insizes and speeds. This makes it difficult to maintaining optimumspacing and optimum runway usage and thus reducing runway trafficcapacity. The capacity of runways lowers when arrivals are more thandepartures thus calling for the need for more capacity to accommodatethe incoming aircrafts. Other aircrafts may be directed to the otherairport in order to improve the capacity of the airport.

The wave vortexturbulence is associated with the aircraft characteristics the sizeand aerodynamics of an aircraft affect the turbulence generated as aresult (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002). Wave Vortex can persist even foras long as 2 minutes after aircraft has passed. The increase inweight and size of aircraft increases the strength of vortexgenerated by the aircraft. The vortex created by aircraft afterleaving affects the aircraft following it thereby determining theseparation time. The separation time is longer when the vortex isgenerated by a larger aircraft and when a smaller one is followingit. The capacity of an airport is thus affected by vortex. Weatheralso contributed to the total number of departures and arrivals thatan airport serves. Heavy snow, fog, and strong wind reduced theability of an airport to accommodate aircraft and in some cases theairport may close temporarily or completely.

There are variouscombinations of runways that have different operating capacities, andeach combination may be suitable for a different set of weather andtraffic conditions (LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010). Large airportslike Ezeiza have several combinations of the runways compared tosmaller one e.g. AEP in order to accommodate for their number ofaircrafts using the airport. Environmental concerns have been raisedby the noise emanating for the aircrafts. The neighboring communitiesare affected by the noise, forcing displacement of close homesteads.Larger airports have larger aircrafts resulting into a lot of noisesproduced to the surrounding environments (LANDRUM &amp BROWN(2010). The noise can be addressed by introduction of quieteraircrafts. However, the solution to noise through the introduction ofquieter aircrafts lowers the capacity of airports. Noise controlprocedures always have a problem with methods of improving airportcapacity and vice versa.

Question 2

Currentsituation of the city with the two airports

MinistroPistariniInternational Airport is the biggest airport in Buenos Aires andArgentina covering an area of 3, 475 hectares. The airport is locatedin Ezeiza 22 kilometers from Buenos Aires and Ezeiza is currentlyserving 70 % of passengers in Argentina (AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA2000). It is a key hub in South America and is the 11th busiestairport in the region. The airport is operated by AeropuertusArgentina and Owned by the Argentine government. Ezeiza internationalairport has three terminals A, B and C, which each terminal had theirinformation desk and the airport is able to serve more than 8 milliontravelers annually (AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA 2000). There aretaxis, buses and rental cars and hotels and lodges available fortravelers into and from the city and the technological advancementhas enabled improvement of security surveillance within the airportfacilities (AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA 2000).

Although theairport is mainly for international travels, there domestic andregional flights that use the airport facilities and the airportserves larger aircrafts compared to AEP airport (AEROPUERTOSARGENTINA 2000). Its location on the outskirts of the city makesit suitable for departures and arrivals of larger aircrafts thatcould have negative effects on surrounding settlements, especially ifit was close to the city. Technologically, the airport has advancedwithin its third terminal, terminal C completed recently, havingmodern technological facilities to enhance the efficiency ofoperations (AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA 2000). Major internationalairlines that use the airport include Aerolíneas Argentinas,Aeroméxico, Air Canada, American Airlines, Air Europa, Emirates,British Airways and Air France among others. The airlines using theairport facilities have destinations on all the continents with mostof its destination being in South American continent followed byNorth America (World Travel Guide. 2015, 5).AerolíneasArgentinas mainly serves the South American and NorthAmerican destinations. Ezeiza airport has more than air carriers withmany direct flights from Atlanta, Georgia, Auckland, New Zealand,Barcelona, Spain and Cape Town (World Travel Guide. 2015, 5).

Aeroparque JorgeNewbery Airport (AEP) is located in Palermo ward 2 km to thenortheast of Buenos Aires and covers an area of 138 hectares. AEP isoperated by Aeropuertus Argentina 2000, and it mainly serves domesticflights from Buenos Aires ((EZE) MinistroPistarini AirportOverview 2015). The regional flights that are offered by theairport include those to Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, andParaguay Aires ((EZE) MinistroPistarini Airport Overview 2015).In the year 2013, Newbery was pronounced the busiest airport inArgentina having served a third of the nation’s total scheduled airtraffic. There has been the continuous growth of traffic in theairport over the years with 2013 recording serving over 9.5 millionpassengers and a growth of 7.9 % from the previous year Aires((EZE) MinistroPistarini Airport Overview 2015).

According to(Buenos Aires Helrad), Jorge Newbery Airport on Saturday 19September 2015 experienced delays due to protest of air trafficcontrollers. 26 flights were reported to be canceled due to theprotest. The air traffic controllers protested in response to theAssociation of State Workers (ATE) union that demanded air force notto interfere with the workers in the air traffic control tower(Buenos Aires Helrad). This resulted to congestion oftravelers at the airport after several flights were canceled. Thesituation was settled, with the air-traffic controllers resumingtheir duties that allowed activities and flight to return to normalin the airport. Reprogramming of flights was necessary in order toensure the congestion of travelers was resolved. The capacity of theairport runways to allow for arrivals and departures was interferedwith and till there were delays some hours after the protest wasover. (Buenos Aires Helrad)

According to(EDWARDS B. (2004) the procedure and regulations enforced byinternational corporations and bodies in airport transport sector isresponsible for airport capacity limitations. These regulations limitthe number of passengers traveling within a given period. During peakseasons, passengers may not be satisfied with the services offered byairports especially when unfavorable weather conditions prevailbecause bad weather conditions reduce the runway capacity and thusreduced the number of aircrafts can be supported on such runways.Delays are a result of such conditions and thus affecting daily sales(EDWARDS B. (2004). Edwards also suggests that flight delays aremajor ways of time, money and fuel and delays are common when thereis arising traffic demand for transport services while the airportscapacity cannot accommodate it.

Question 3

Proposedstrategy for air transport in Buenos Aires

EzeizaInternational has been expanded recently which included the thirdterminal (AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA 2000). Therefore, expansion ofthe airport will result in environmental issues in the surroundingsettlement. Additional, expansion may face financial constraints dueto the other expansion of the terminal C. AEP airport, is close tothe city that is composed of taller buildings. Expansion of theairport in order to accommodate more and larger aircrafts will be athreat to the dense urban settlement and tall buildings. In order toimprove the efficiency of operations of the two airports, it will besuitable when strategies are employed for improving the capacitieswithout the need for constructing new runways (GILBO, E.P. (2002).The following strategies can be applied by (AeropuertusArgentina 2000) in proper management of the two airports inBuenos Aires.

The management ofthe two airports should maximize the number of passengers thusresulting into increased number of routes flown from the two airports(Aeropuertus Argentina 2000). There will be an optimal balancebetween short-haul and long-haul routes. Such practice is not likelyto cause unintended and negative outcomes (Aeropuertus Argentina2000). When the number of departures is increased beyond thenumber of passengers arriving at the two airports, the runwaycapacities are increased (GILBO, E.P. (2002). This increasesthe airport`s ability to handle more aircrafts and passengers.

The airspaceconfiguration is associated with the capacity of an airport. In thissense, the capacity of an airport is affected by the number ofrunways that are available for aircrafts as well as theirconfigurations and efficient management and planning of airspaceimproves the utilization of the airports existing capacities(GILBO, E.P. (2002). Management of the run aviation operationsand activities with the airports can improve runway capacity.Benchmarking will be the best exercise the management can apply toconduct a thorough study of the strategies that other successfulairports of the world do in increasing capacity to handle moreairports without the need for physical expansion (GILBO, E.P.(2002).

Benchmarking is aprocess that demands lots of commitment and resources (time, money,personnel and equipment) to its effectiveness (NEUFVILLE R. &ampGUZMÁN J. R. 2015, 12) Benchmarking involves four steps:identification of key measures of capacity selection of comparableinternational airports worldwide collection of relevant data aboutthe identified airports in terms of the strategies they employ toincrease capacity and analysis of the data collected and developmentof a report(NEUFVILLE R. &amp GUZMÁN J. R. 2015, 12). Themanagement practices recorded in the report is then compared with thefacts about the each of the two airports to assess the feasibilitythe practices and Management practices that can best use the existingairport capacity to address its demands are implemented (NEUFVILLER. &amp GUZMÁN J. R. 2015, 12).

Congestion atairports is one of key traffic capacity problems faced in the twoairports (Aeropuertus Argentina 2000). This problem can beaddressed through improvement of surface operations complex trafficcan be effectively managed by use of automation. This approachinvolves advanced surface-traffic-control automation and flight-deckautomation. Automation significantly improves communication,navigation and surveillance technologies which the two airports canbenefits from when implemented. In surface-traffic-controlautomation, ground-operation situation awareness and flow efficiency(GO-SAFE) improves the usage of runways especially where delays arecaused by active-runway crossing. Therefore, surface-traffic controlautomaton improves runway capacity (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002).GO-SAFE is enhanced by flight-deck automation for reliable groundoperations (FARGO) which provides the required flight-deckautomation. Achievement of precise taxi control which is consistentwith GO-SAFE advisories. These strategies enable, high coordinatedautomation systems, improves surface traffic performance as a way ofincreasing capacity without interfering with safety and performanceof taxi.

In order tooptimize traffic flows (Aeropuertus Argentina 2000) shouldconsider the interaction between runway capacity and capacities ofarrival and departure fixes. From this perspective, runways and thefixes are considered single system resources while arrivals anddepartures are considered to be simultaneous interdependentprocesses. (Aeropuertus Argentina 2000) (Management) should dothe dynamic time-dependent allocation of airport capacity and improvetraffic flows between arrivals and departures. This should be donedepending on the operational challenges at runways, demand andweather condition. The practices will also improve efficiency ofoperations within the two airports (GILBO, E.P. 2002).

Air-controlsystems also place the important role in the utilization of theexisting airport capacity (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002). Based onJamaica Bay Environmental Study Group, the introduction of advancedair-traffic control systems based on the new technology would allowfor an increment of the runway capacity of each of the two airportsof Buenos Aires (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002). Technologicaladvancement in the aviation sector is a continuous process which newdevelopments every time. The runway combinations criteria should beemployed by the management to improve their runway utilization as away of improving their capacities. Technological advancements notedfrom other airports during the benchmark can be applied to thephysical design of AEP and Ezeiza. For effectiveness, thetechnologies used by the two airports in management of operations andprocesses should consist of general technology and specializedtechnology i.e. site-specific applications of technology which aretailored to meet demands of different sectors in the airport (HARRISR. M et al. 1988). Congestion of travelers and efficiency ofservice delivery will be addressed by the improvement of thetechnical design of the terminals. The improved physical design ofEzeiza will improve movements within the terminals thus minimizingwastage of time, money and fuel.

TAP programshould be adopted by the airport managements to maintain and improvethe capacities of the airports even during when there are unfavorableweather conditions. TAP was proposed by NASA, and it is composed oftechnologies that will enable the two airports to operate in duringbad weather at the rates they achieve only in good weather. The TAPtechnologies are reduced spacing operations (RSO), visibility landingand surface operations (LVLASO), and air traffic management (ATM)(HEMM R. ET. AL.1999, 59). LVLASO will increase airportcapacity through “…reducing aircraft runway occupancy time (ROT),separation requirements, and taxi times in low visibility conditions”(DONOHUE, G. L. 2001)

The abovestrategies should be implemented into the operations of AEP andEzeiza. They are effective in increasing airport capacities in orderto increase the number of departures and arrivals within a specifiedperiod.

References

(EZE) MinistroPistarini Airport Overview 2015), retrievedfromhttp://www.flightstats.com/go/Airport/airportDetails.do?airportCode=EZEon 16 September 2015

AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA 2000, retrieved from http://www.aa2000.com.aron 16 September 2015

Airport system development, DIANE Publishing

CHENG, V.H.L. (2002), Collaborative automation systems for enhancingairport surface traffic efficiency and safety, Digital AvionicsSystems Conference, Vol. 1

DONOHUE, G. L. (2001).&nbspAir transportation systemsengineering. Reston, Va, American Institute of Aeronautics andAstronautics.

EDWARDS B. (2004), the Modern Airport Terminal: New Approaches toAirport Architecture, Taylor &amp Francis

GILBO, E.P. (2002), Optimizing airport capacity utilization in airtraffic flow management subject to constraints at arrival anddeparture fixes, Control Systems Technology, Vol. 5, issue 5

GRAHAM, A., PAPATHEODOROU, A., &amp FORSYTH, P. (2010).&nbspAviationand tourism: Implications for leisure travel. Farnham, England:Ashgate.

GREAT BRITAIN (2013).&nbspAviation strategy: First report ofsession 2013-14. London: Stationery Office.

HARRIS R. M et al. (1988), Technology to increase airport capacity,retrieved from http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.1980-920on 19 September 2015

HEMM R. ET. AL. (1999), Benefit Estimates of Terminal AreaProductivity Program Technologies, NASA/CR-1999-208989

JAMAICA BAY ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY GROUP.,&amp NATIONAL RESEARCHCOUNCIL (U.S.). (1971).Jamaica Bay and Kennedy Airport: amultidisciplinary environmental study: A report. Washington:National Academy of Sciences.

LANDRUM &amp BROWN., NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (U.S.)., AIRPORTCOOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM., &amp UNITED STATES. (2010).&nbspAirportpassenger terminal planning and design. Washington, D.C:Transportation Research Board.

NEUFVILLE R. &amp GUZMÁN J. R 2013). Benchmarking for Design ofMajor Airports Worldwide, retrieved fromhttp://ardent.mit.edu/airports/ASP_papers/airport%20benchmarking.PDFon 16 September 2015

UNITED STATES. (1996).&nbspFAA/Airport Improvement Program(FAA/AIP) reauthorization: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce,Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred FourthCongress, second session, May 14, 1996. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

WORLD TRAVEL GUIDE, Buenos Aires MinistroPistarini InternationalAirport Guide (EZE), retrieved fromhttp://www.worldtravelguide.net/argentina/buenos-aires-ministro-pistarini-international-airporton 16 September 2015

ZAPOROZHETS O., TOKAREV V &amp ATTENBOROUGH K. (2011), AircraftNoise: Assessment, Prediction and Control, CRC Press


Buenos Aires Airport Operations By (name)

Buenos Aires Airport Operations By (name)

BUENOS AIRES AIRPORT OPERATIONS 4

Buenos Aires Airport Operations

By (name)

The name of the class

The name of the school

The city/state

The date

Buenos Aires isthe main capital city of Argentina and is the largest city in thecountry with a sum of over 2.6 million people. There have been greatchanges in the transport sector in the country and the city. Forexample, air transport that is traditionally expensive is becomingmore popular due to competition and price changes over the recentyears. Buenos Aires is served by Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport(AEP) and Ministro Pistarini International Airport (Ezeiza). AEPserves mainly as a domestic and regional airport but has someinternational departures while Ezeiza is approximately 30 kilometersfrom Buenos Aires downtown and offers both national and internationalservice. This paper focuses on the study of the two airports servingthe Argentina’s capital. The physical design and capacitylimitations of the AEP are discussed with its impact on the city’sair transport service. The current situation of the city in regard tothe two airports is assessed, and a proposal is made for the city andthe airports to improve transport system in and out of the city.

Question 1

Physical designof an airport

The physicaldesign and capacity of an existing airfield and access facilitiesinfluences its ability to accommodate current and future demands.Effective planning of airports during construction of new ones orexpansion is an important task as it ensures delivery of the presentdemand without necessarily affecting addressing future demands. Thephysical design of airports is associated with aviation risks andaccessibility of the airport services by customers. LANDRUM &ampBROWN (2010) explain that the physical design and capacitylimitations of an airport should take into account multitude safety,operational, commercial, financial and environmental considerations.Appropriate airport terminal planning and design makes operationalactivities easy and efficient.

The airportterminal is the central building of any airport. The design of theterminal should ensure the provision of the good level of service tothe users. The plan and design of the overall terminal facility isdetermined by requirements to accommodate maneuvering aircraft andground access systems. The airport terminal consists of airside,terminal and landside. The figure below represents general airportterminal complex.

Planning anddesign of airside terminal facilities should consider gaterequirements and locating aircraft parking positions and their taxilanes that optimize efficiency of the airfield prior to developingthe internal layout of the terminal building and landside curd andterminal roadway system. The efficiency of airfield operationsinfluences the overall efficiency of travelers processing through theterminal. The ability of aircraft to park at the terminal andmaneuvering safely around the airfield with consideration to taxilane requirement based on the FAA Advisory Circulars is also affectedby the airfield operations efficiency. There are primaryconsiderations that must be taken into account in the airsidecomponent of the terminal they include the following.

• Aircraftparking restrictions

• Aircraftmaneuvering i.e. pushback areas, taxiway/taxi lane requirements

• Aircraftparking i.e. terminal gates, remote aircraft parking positions,wingtip clearance,

• Aircraftparking apron

• Apronservice roads, ground service management

•Environmental characteristics

• Securityand emergency response

Due to theever-evolving aviation industry, airport terminal buildings should beconstructed such that it does not hinder future modifications tomeeting the trending technological features of terminal buildings.LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010) argue that they should be flexible toaccommodate for future advances at minimal expense and addressing thevarious demands of passengers, airlines, and aircraft. When theterminal buildings are not flexible and balanced, the airportmanagement will not be able to meet strategic goals and FAArequirements. There are key functional and operational drivers suchbusiness factors and the local communities that should be consideredwhen planning and designing terminals. They include Concessionsplanning Security planning Movement of people and baggageInformation technology Sustainability and demand managementconcepts and Programmatic parameters

The planning anddesign of landside terminal facilities influence the overalltravelers’ perceptions of the efficiency and user friendliness ofthe terminal. This part of terminal provides an interface between theairport and regional grounds transportation system. The design shouldallow passenger connectivity between various points of the landsideaccess to the terminal by road. Poor design is characterized withcongestions resulting from pedestrian and vehicular movements on thelandside. Expansion of the landside facilities to cater for futuredemands is determined by how proactive planning of the landside is.Curb and roadway systems are mainly found in the landside part of theairport.

Walking distanceis another crucial consideration that should be made when planningand designing airport terminals. Airports should be designed in a waythat walking is minimized to a greater extent. Passenger walkingdistance according to IATA should be a maximum of between “….820and 985 feet unaided and up to 2, 133 feet with moving walkways”(Landrum &amp Brown 2010, 38). Availability of mover systems such asescalators in airports is important in minimizing time and distancethat passenger takes while in the airport. Congestion of travelers,meters/greeters, employees, etc. can be addressed by people moversystems. Passenger Bridge can also be constructed in the terminal toreduce congestion just like in Gatwick Airport in London. Generally,the design and plan of airport and its terminals is influenced bystrategic goals of the airport management, balance, level of service,passenger convenience, flexibility, security, wayfinding and terminalsignage, accessibility and maintenance.

Airport capacitylimitations

The capacity ofan airport in an important determinant of the number of aircrafts theairport can handle annually as well as the number of passengers.Capacity limitations have been enforced by international bodies ontransport especially in air transport due to the impacts of aircraftson the surrounding environment. The major factors that influenceairport capacity limitations include Aircraft performancecharacteristics Wake vortex turbulence Airfield and airspaceconfiguration Weather Aircraft noise ATC equipment and proceduresDemand considerations

Thecharacteristics of the aircraft in terms of size, aerodynamics,propulsion, avionics and braking performance determine the capacityof the runway of the airside of an airport. They tend to increasewith a capacity of the runway that can accommodate them. The capacityof airport influences the pilot regarding the training, experience,and skills in order to operate the aircraft on its runways. Pilotexperience and training determines the performance of runways. Thecapacity of runways determines the types of aircrafts using it. Goodexamples are the two airports of Buenos Aires, AEP, and Ezeiza. SinceAEP is mainly for domestic flights and regional flights, its runwaycapacity cannot accommodate the larger aircrafts that use the runwaysof Ezeiza, which are higher capacities. In AEP airport, there isdiverse traffic mix with jets and propeller aircrafts that vary insizes and speeds. This makes it difficult to maintaining optimumspacing and optimum runway usage and thus reducing runway trafficcapacity. The capacity of runways lowers when arrivals are more thandepartures thus calling for the need for more capacity to accommodatethe incoming aircrafts. Other aircrafts may be directed to the otherairport in order to improve the capacity of the airport.

The wave vortexturbulence is associated with the aircraft characteristics the sizeand aerodynamics of an aircraft affect the turbulence generated as aresult. Wave Vortex can persist even for as long as 2 minutes afteraircraft has passed. The increase in weight and size of aircraftincreases the strength of vortex generated by the aircraft. Thevortex created by aircraft after leaving affects the aircraftfollowing it thereby determining the separation time. The separationtime is longer when the vortex is generated by a larger aircraft andwhen a smaller one is following it. The capacity of an airport isthus affected by vortex. Weather also contributed to the total numberof departures and arrivals that an airport serves. Heavy snow, fog,and strong wind reduced the ability of an airport to accommodateaircraft and in some cases the airport may close temporarily orcompletely.

There are variouscombinations of runways that have different operating capacities, andeach combination may be suitable for a different set of weather andtraffic conditions. Large airports like Ezeiza have severalcombinations of the runways compared to smaller one e.g. AEP in orderto accommodate for their number of aircrafts using the airport.Environmental concerns have been raised by the noise emanating forthe aircrafts. The neighboring communities are affected by the noise,forcing displacement of close homesteads. Larger airports have largeraircrafts resulting into a lot of noises produced to the surroundingenvironments. The noise can be addressed by introduction of quieteraircrafts. However, the solution to noise through the introduction ofquieter aircrafts lowers the capacity of airports. Noise controlprocedures always have a problem with methods of improving airportcapacity and vice versa.

The procedure andregulations enforced by international corporations and bodies inairport transport sector is responsible for airport capacitylimitations. These regulations limit the number of passengerstraveling within a given period. During peak seasons, passengers maynot be satisfied with the services offered by airports especiallywhen unfavorable weather conditions prevail. Bad weather conditionsreduce the runway capacity and thus reduced the number of aircraftscan be supported on such runways. Delays are a result of suchconditions and thus affecting daily sales. Flight delays are majorways of time, money and fuel. Delays are common when there is arisingtraffic demand for transport services while the airports capacitycannot accommodate it.

Question 2

Current situationof the city with the two airports

MinistroPistarini International Airport is the biggest airport in BuenosAires and Argentina covering an area of 3, 475 hectares. The airportis located in Ezeiza 22 kilometers from Buenos Aires. Ezeiza iscurrently serving 70 % of passengers in Argentina. It is a key hub inSouth America and is the 11th busiest airport in the region. Theairport is operated by Aeropuertus Argentina and Owned by theArgentine government. Ezeiza international airport has threeterminals A, B and C, which each terminal had their information desk.The airport serves more than 8 million travelers annually. There aretaxis, buses and rental cars and hotels and lodges available fortravelers into and from the city. The technological advancement hasenabled improvement of security surveillance within the airportfacilities.

Although theairport is mainly for international travels, there domestic andregional flights that use the airport facilities. The airport serveslarger aircrafts compared to AEP airport. Its location on theoutskirts of the city makes it suitable for departures and arrivalsof larger aircrafts that could have negative effects on surroundingsettlements, especially if it was close to the city. Technologically,the airport has advanced within its third terminal, terminal Ccompleted recently, having modern technological facilities to enhancethe efficiency of operations. Major international airlines that usethe airport include Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeroméxico, Air Canada,American Airlines, Air Europa, Emirates, British Airways and AirFrance among others. The airlines using the airport facilities havedestinations on all the continents with most of its destination beingin South American continent followed by North America. AerolíneasArgentinas mainly serves the South American and North Americandestinations. Ezeiza airport has more than air carriers with manydirect flights from Atlanta, Georgia, Auckland, New Zealand,Barcelona, Spain and Cape Town (World Travel Guide. 2015, 5).

Aeroparque JorgeNewbery Airport (AEP) is located in Palermo ward 2 km to thenortheast of Buenos Aires and covers an area of 138 hectares. AEP isoperated by Aeropuertus Argentina 2000, and it mainly serves domesticflights from Buenos Aires. The regional flights that are offered bythe airport include those to Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, andParaguay. In the year 2013, Newbery was pronounced the busiestairport in Argentina having served a third of the nation’s totalscheduled air traffic. There has been the continuous growth oftraffic in the airport over the years with 2013 recording servingover 9.5 million passengers and a growth of 7.9 % from the previousyear.

According toBuenos Aires Helrad, Jorge Newbery Airport on Saturday 19 September2015 experienced delays due to protest of air traffic controllers. 26flights were reported to be canceled due to the protest. The airtraffic controllers protested in response to the Association of StateWorkers (ATE) union that demanded air force not to interfere with theworkers in the air traffic control tower. This resulted to congestionof travelers at the airport after several flights were canceled. Thesituation was settled, with the air-traffic controllers resumingtheir duties that allowed activities and flight to return to normalin the airport. Reprogramming of flights was necessary in order toensure the congestion of travelers was resolved. The capacity of theairport runways to allow for arrivals and departures was interferedwith. Still there were delays some hours after the protest was over.

Question 3

Proposed strategyfor air transport in Buenos Aires

EzeizaInternational has been expanded recently which included the thirdterminal. Therefore, expansion of the airport will result inenvironmental issues in the surrounding settlement. Additional,expansion may face financial constraints due to the other expansionof the terminal C. AEP airport, is close to the city that is composedof taller buildings. Expansion of the airport in order to accommodatemore and larger aircrafts will be a threat to the dense urbansettlement and tall buildings. In order to improve the efficiency ofoperations of the two airports, it will be suitable when strategiesare employed for improving the capacities without the need forconstructing new runways. The following strategies can be applied byAeropuertus Argentina 2000 in proper management of the two airportsin Buenos Aires.

The management ofthe two airports should maximize the number of passengers thusresulting into increased number of routes flown from the twoairports. There will be an optimal balance between short-haul andlong-haul routes. Such practice is not likely to cause unintended andnegative outcomes. When the number of departures is increased beyondthe number of passengers arriving at the two airports, the runwaycapacities are increased. This increases the airport`s ability tohandle more aircrafts and passengers.

The airspaceconfiguration is associated with the capacity of an airport. In thissense, the capacity of an airport is affected by the number ofrunways that are available for aircrafts as well as theirconfigurations. Efficient management and planning of airspaceimproves the utilization of the airports existing capacities.Management of the run aviation operations and activities with theairports can improve runway capacity. Benchmarking will be the bestexercise the management can apply to conduct a thorough study of thestrategies that other successful airports of the world do inincreasing capacity to handle more airports without the need forphysical expansion.

Benchmarking is aprocess that demands lots of commitment and resources (time, money,personnel and equipment) to its effectiveness. Benchmarking involvesfour steps: identification of key measures of capacity selection ofcomparable international airports worldwide collection of relevantdata about the identified airports in terms of the strategies theyemploy to increase capacity and analysis of the data collected anddevelopment of a report. The management practices recorded in thereport is then compared with the facts about the each of the twoairports to assess the feasibility the practices. Managementpractices that can best use the existing airport capacity to addressits demands are implemented (NEUFVILLE R. &amp GUZMÁN J. R. 2015,12).

Congestion atairports is one of key traffic capacity problems faced in the twoairports. This problem can be addressed through improvement ofsurface operations complex traffic can be effectively managed by useof automation. This approach involves advancedsurface-traffic-control automation and flight-deck automation.Automation significantly improves communication, navigation andsurveillance technologies which the two airports can benefits fromwhen implemented. In surface-traffic-control automation,ground-operation situation awareness and flow efficiency (GO-SAFE)improves the usage of runways especially where delays are caused byactive-runway crossing. Therefore, surface-traffic control automatonimproves runway capacity (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002). GO-SAFE is enhanced byflight-deck automation for reliable ground operations (FARGO) whichprovides the required flight-deck automation. Achievement of precisetaxi control which is consistent with GO-SAFE advisories. Thesestrategies enable, high coordinated automation systems, improvessurface traffic performance as a way of increasing capacity withoutinterfering with safety and performance of taxi.

In order tooptimize traffic flows Aeropuertus Argentina 2000 should consider theinteraction between runway capacity and capacities of arrival anddeparture fixes. From this perspective, runways and the fixes areconsidered single system resources while arrivals and departures areconsidered to be simultaneous interdependent processes. AeropuertusArgentina 2000 (management) should do the dynamic time-dependentallocation of airport capacity and improve traffic flows betweenarrivals and departures. This should be done depending on theoperational challenges at runways, demand and weather condition. Thepractices will also improve efficiency of operations within the twoairports (GILBO, E.P. 2002).

Air-controlsystems also place the important role in the utilization of theexisting airport capacity. Based on Jamaica Bay Environmental StudyGroup, the introduction of advanced air-traffic control systems basedon the new technology would allow for an increment of the runwaycapacity of each of the two airports of Buenos Aires. Technologicaladvancement in the aviation sector is a continuous process which newdevelopments every time. The runway combinations criteria should beemployed by the management to improve their runway utilization as away of improving their capacities. Technological advancements notedfrom other airports during the benchmark can be applied to thephysical design of AEP and Ezeiza. For effectiveness, thetechnologies used by the two airports in management of operations andprocesses should consist of general technology and specializedtechnology i.e. site-specific applications of technology which aretailored to meet demands of different sectors in the airport (HARRISR. M et al. 1988). Congestion of travelers and efficiency of servicedelivery will be addressed by the improvement of the technical designof the terminals. The improved physical design of Ezeiza will improvemovements within the terminals thus minimizing wastage of time, moneyand fuel.

TAP programshould be adopted by the airport managements to maintain and improvethe capacities of the airports even during when there are unfavorableweather conditions. TAP was proposed by NASA, and it is composed oftechnologies that will enable the two airports to operate in duringbad weather at the rates they achieve only in good weather. The TAPtechnologies are reduced spacing operations (RSO), visibility landingand surface operations (LVLASO), and air traffic management (ATM)(HEMM R. ET. AL.1999, 59). LVLASO will increase airport capacitythrough “…reducing aircraft runway occupancy time (ROT),separation requirements, and taxi times in low visibility conditions”(DONOHUE, G. L. 2001)

The abovestrategies should be implemented into the operations of AEP andEzeiza. They are effective in increasing airport capacities in orderto increase the number of departures and arrivals within a specifiedperiod.

References

(EZE) Ministro Pistarini Airport Overview, retrieved fromhttp://www.flightstats.com/go/Airport/airportDetails.do?airportCode=EZEon 16 September 2015

AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA 2000, retrieved from http://www.aa2000.com.aron 16 September 2015

Airport system development, DIANE Publishing

CHENG, V.H.L. (2002), Collaborative automation systems for enhancingairport surface traffic efficiency and safety, Digital AvionicsSystems Conference, Vol. 1

DONOHUE, G. L. (2001).&nbspAir transportation systemsengineering. Reston, Va, American Institute of Aeronautics andAstronautics.

DONOHUE, G. L. (2001).&nbspAir transportation systemsengineering. Reston, Va: American Institute of Aeronautics andAstronautics.

EDWARDS B. (2004), The Modern Airport Terminal: New Approaches toAirport Architecture, Taylor &amp Francis

GILBO, E.P. (2002), Optimizing airport capacity utilization in airtraffic flow management subject to constraints at arrival anddeparture fixes, Control Systems Technology, Vol. 5, issue 5

GRAHAM, A., PAPATHEODOROU, A., &amp FORSYTH, P. (2010).&nbspAviationand tourism: Implications for leisure travel. Farnham, England:Ashgate.

GREAT BRITAIN (2013).&nbspAviation strategy: First report ofsession 2013-14. London: Stationery Office.

HARRIS R. M et al. (1988), Technology to increase airport capacity,retrieved from http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.1980-920on 19 September 2015

HEMM R. ET. AL. (1999), Benefit Estimates of Terminal AreaProductivity Program Technologies, NASA/CR-1999-208989

JAMAICA BAY ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY GROUP., &amp NATIONAL RESEARCHCOUNCIL (U.S.). (1971).Jamaica Bay and Kennedy Airport: amultidisciplinary environmental study: A report. Washington:National Academy of Sciences.

LANDRUM &amp BROWN., NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (U.S.)., AIRPORTCOOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM., &amp UNITED STATES. (2010).&nbspAirportpassenger terminal planning and design. Washington, D.C:Transportation Research Board.

NEUFVILLE R. &amp GUZMÁN J. R., Benchmarking For Design Of MajorAirports Worldwide, retrieved fromhttp://ardent.mit.edu/airports/ASP_papers/airport%20benchmarking.PDFon 16 September 2015

UNITED STATES. (1996).&nbspFAA/Airport Improvement Program(FAA/AIP) reauthorization: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce,Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred FourthCongress, second session, May 14, 1996. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

WORLD TRAVEL GUIDE, Buenos Aires Ministro Pistarini InternationalAirport Guide (EZE), retrieved fromhttp://www.worldtravelguide.net/argentina/buenos-aires-ministro-pistarini-international-airporton 16 September 2015

ZAPOROZHETS O., TOKAREV V &amp ATTENBOROUGH K. (2011), AircraftNoise: Assessment, Prediction and Control, CRC Press


Buenos Aires Airport Operations By (name)

Buenos Aires Airport Operations By (name)

BUENOS AIRES AIRPORT OPERATIONS 4

Buenos Aires Airport Operations

By (name)

The name of the class

The name of the school

The city/state

The date

Buenos Aires is the main capital city of Argentina and is the largestcity in the country with more than 2.6 million people. There havebeen great changes in the transport sector in the country and thecity. For example, air transport that is traditionally expensive isbecoming more popular due to competition and price changes over therecent years. Buenos Aires is served by Aeroparque Jorge Newberyairport (AEP) and Ministro Pistarini International Airport (Ezeiza).AEP serves mainly as a domestic and regional airport but has someinternational departures while Ezeiza is approximately 30 kilometersfrom Buenos Aires downtown and offers both national and internationalservices. This paper focuses on the study of the two airports servingthe Argentina’s capital. The physical design and capacitylimitations of the AEP are discussed with its impact on the city’sair transport service. The current situation of the city in regard tothe two airports is assessed, and a proposal is made for the city andthe airports to improve transport system in and out of the city.

QUESTION 1

Physical design of an airport

The physical design and capacity of an existing airfield and accessfacilities influences its ability to accommodate current and futuredemands (LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010). Effective planning ofairports during construction of new ones or expansion is an importanttask as it ensures delivery of the present demands withoutnecessarily affecting future planning. The physical design ofairports is associated with aviation risks and accessibility of theairport services by customers (LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010).According to LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010), the physical design andcapacity limitations of an airport should take into account multitudesafety, operational, commercial, financial and environmentalconsiderations. This means that appropriate airport terminal planningand design makes operational activities easy and efficient.

The airport terminal is the central building of any airport. Thedesign of the terminal should ensure the provision of the good levelof services to the users and the plan and design of the overallterminal facility is determined by requirements to accommodatemaneuvering aircraft and ground access systems (EDWARDS B. (2004).The airport terminal consists of airside, terminal and landside. Thefigure below represents general airport terminal complex.

Figure1: General Airport Terminal (EDWARDSB. (2004).

Planning and design of airside terminal facilities should considergate requirements and locating aircraft parking positions and theirtaxi lanes that optimize efficiency of the airfield prior todeveloping the internal layout of the terminal building and landsidecurd and terminal roadway system (EDWARDS, 2004). Theefficiency of airfield operations influences the overall efficiencyof travelers processing through the terminal and the ability ofaircraft to park at the terminal and maneuvering safely around theairfield with consideration to taxi lane requirement based on the FAAAdvisory Circulars (EDWARDS , 2004). EDWARDS (2004) outlinesthe primary considerations that must be taken into account in theairside component of the terminal they include the following.

• Aircraft parking restrictions

• Aircraft maneuvering i.e. pushback areas, taxiway/taxi lanerequirements

• Aircraft parking i.e. terminal gates, remote aircraft parkingpositions

• Aircraft parking apron

• Apron service roads, ground service management

• Environmental characteristics

• Security and emergency response

Due to the ever-evolving aviation industry, airport terminalbuildings should be constructed such that it does not hinder futuremodifications to meeting the trending technological features ofterminal buildings (EDWARDS, 2004). LANDRUM &amp BROWN (2010)argue that, terminal buildings should be flexible to accommodate forfuture advances at minimal expense and addressing the various demandsof passengers, airlines, and aircraft. When the terminal buildingsare not flexible and balanced, the airport management will not beable to meet strategic goals and FAA requirements. There are keyfunctional and operational drivers including business factors and thelocal communities that should be considered when planning anddesigning terminals (EDWARDS, 2004). They include Concessionsplanning Security planning Movement of people and baggageInformation technology Sustainability and demand managementconcepts and Programmatic parameters

The planning and design of landside terminal facilities influence theoverall travelers’ perceptions of the efficiency and userfriendliness of the terminal (EDWARDS, 2004). This part ofterminal provides an interface between the airport and regionalgrounds transportation system. The design should allow passengerconnectivity between various points of the landside access to theterminal by road (EDWARDS, 2004). Poor design is characterizedby congestions resulting from pedestrian and vehicular movements onthe landside. Expansion of the landside facilities to cater forfuture demands is determined by how proactive planning of thelandside is (LANDRUM &amp BROWN, 2010). Curb and roadwaysystems are mainly found in the landside part of the airport.

Walking distance is another crucial consideration that should be madewhen planning and designing airport terminals. Airports should bedesigned in a way that walking is minimized to a greater extent.Passenger walking distance according to IATA should be a maximum ofbetween “….820 and 985 feet unaided and up to 2, 133 feet withmoving walkways” (Landrum &amp Brown 2010, 38). Availability ofmover systems such as escalators in airports is important inminimizing time and distance that a passenger takes while in theairport. Congestion of travelers, meters/greeters, employees, etc.can be addressed by people mover systems. Passenger Bridge can alsobe constructed in the terminal to reduce congestion just like inGatwick Airport in London. Generally, the design and plan of airportand its terminals is influenced by strategic goals of the airportmanagement, balance, level of service, passenger convenience,flexibility, security, way finding and terminal signage,accessibility and maintenance.

Airport capacity limitations

The capacity of an airport in an important determinant of the numberof aircrafts the airport can handle annually as well as the number ofpassengers (CHENG, 2002). Capacity limitations have beenenforced by international bodies on transport especially in airtransport due to the impacts of aircrafts on the surroundingenvironment. The major factors that influence airport capacitylimitations include Aircraft performance characteristics Wakevortex turbulence Airfield and airspace configuration WeatherAircraft noise ATC equipment and procedures Demand considerations.

The characteristics of the aircraft in terms of size, aerodynamics,propulsion, avionics and braking performance determine the capacityof the runway of the airside of an airport (CHENG, V.H.L. 2002).They tend to increase with a capacity of the runway that canaccommodate them. The capacity of airport influences the pilotregarding the training, experience, and skills in order to operatethe aircraft on its runways. Pilot experience and training determinesthe performance of runways. The capacity of runways determines thetypes of aircrafts using it. Good examples are the two airports ofBuenos Aires, AEP, and Ezeiza (CHENG, 2002). Since AEP ismainly for domestic flights and regional flights, its runway capacitycannot accommodate the larger aircrafts that use the runways ofEzeiza, which are higher capacities. In AEP airport, there is diversetraffic mix with jets and propeller aircrafts that vary in sizes andspeeds. This makes it difficult to maintain optimum spacing andrunway usage, thus reducing runway traffic capacity. The capacity ofrunways lowers when arrivals are more than departures thus callingfor the need for more capacity to accommodate the incoming aircrafts.Other aircrafts may be directed to the other airport in order toimprove the capacity of the airport.

The wave vortex turbulence is associated with the aircraftcharacteristics the size and aerodynamics of an aircraft affect theturbulence generated as a result (CHENG, 2002). Wave Vortexcan persist even for as long as 2 minutes after aircraft has passed.The increase in weight and size of aircraft increases the strength ofvortex generated by the aircraft. The vortex created by an aircraftafter leaving affects the aircraft following it thereby determiningthe separation time. The separation time is longer when the vortex isgenerated by a larger aircraft and when a smaller one is followingit. The capacity of an airport is thus affected by vortex. Weatheralso contributes to the total number of departures and arrivals thatan airport serves. Heavy snow, fog, and strong wind reduced theability of an airport to accommodate aircrafts and in some cases theairport may close temporarily or completely.

There are various combinations of runways that have differentoperating capacities, and each combination may be suitable for adifferent set of weather and traffic conditions (LANDRUM &ampBROWN, 2010). Large airports like Ezeiza have severalcombinations of the runways compared to smaller one e.g. AEP in orderto accommodate the number of aircrafts using the airport.Environmental concerns have been raised in regard to the noiseemanating from the aircrafts. The neighboring communities areaffected by the noise, forcing displacement of close homesteads.Larger airports have larger aircrafts resulting into a lot of noisesproduced to the surrounding environments (LANDRUM &amp BROWN,2010). The noise can be addressed by introduction of quieteraircrafts. However, the solution to noise through the introduction ofquieter aircrafts lowers the capacity of airports. Noise controlprocedures always have a problem with methods of improving airportcapacity and vice versa.

QUESTION 2

Current situation of the city with the two airports

Ministro Pistarini International Airport is the biggest airport inBuenos Aires and Argentina covering an area of 3, 475 hectares. Theairport is located in Ezeiza 22 kilometers from Buenos Aires andEzeiza. It currently serves 70 % of passengers in Argentina(AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA, 2000). It is a hub in South Americaand is the 11th busiest airport in the region. The airport isoperated by Aeropuertus Argentina and Owned by the Argentinegovernment. Ezeiza international airport has three terminals A, B andC, with each terminal having its own information desk enabling theairport to serve more than 8 million travelers annually(AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA, 2000). There are taxis, buses and rentalcars, hotels and lodges available for travelers into and from thecity and the technological advancement has enabled improvement ofsecurity surveillance within the airport facilities (AEROPUERTOSARGENTINA, 2000).

Although the airport is mainly for international travels, theirdomestic and regional flights that use the airport facilities and theairport serve larger aircrafts compared to AEP airport(AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA, 2000). Its location on the outskirts ofthe city makes it suitable for departures and arrivals of largeraircrafts that could have negative effects on surroundingsettlements, especially if it was close to the city. Technologically,the airport has advanced within its third terminal, terminal C. Therecently completed terminal has modern technological facilities toenhance the efficiency of operations (AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA,2000). Major international airlines that use the airport includeAerolíneas Argentinas, Aeroméxico, Air Canada, American Airlines,Air Europa, Emirates, British Airways and Air France among others.The airlines using the airport facilities have destinations in allthe continents with most of its destinations being South Americafollowed by North America (World Travel Guide. 2015, 5).Aerolíneas Argentinas mainly serves the South America and NorthAmerica destinations. Ezeiza airport has more than air carriers withmany direct flights from Atlanta, Georgia, Auckland, New Zealand,Barcelona, Spain and Cape Town (World Travel Guide. 2015, 5).

Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport (AEP) is located in Palermo ward 2km to the northeast of Buenos Aires and covers an area of 138hectares. AEP is operated by Aeropuertus Argentina 2000, and itmainly serves domestic flights from Buenos (Aires (EZE)(MinistroPistarini Airport Overview 2015). The regional flightsthat are offered by the airport include those to Uruguay, Brazil,Bolivia, Chile, and Paraguay (Aires (EZE) MinistroPistariniAirport Overview 2015). In the year 2013, Newbery was pronouncedthe busiest airport in Argentina having served a third of thenation’s total scheduled air traffic. There has been the continuousgrowth of traffic in the airport over the years with 2013 recordingover 9.5 million passengers and a growth of 7.9 % from the previousyear (Aires (EZE) MinistroPistarini Airport Overview 2015).

According to (Buenos Aires Helrad), Jorge Newbery Airport onSaturday 19 September 2015 experienced delays due to protest of airtraffic controllers. 26 flights were reported to be canceled due tothe protest. The air traffic controllers protested in response to theAssociation of State Workers (ATE) union that demanded air force notto interfere with the workers in the air traffic control tower(Buenos Aires Helrad). This resulted to congestion oftravelers at the airport after several flights were canceled. Thesituation was settled, with the air-traffic controllers resumingtheir duties that allowed activities and flight to return to normalin the airport. Reprogramming of flights was necessary in order toensure the congestion of travelers was resolved. The capacity of theairport runways to allow for arrivals and departures was interferedwith resulting to delays some hours after the protest was over.(Buenos Aires Helrad)

According to (EDWARDS (2004) the procedure and regulationsenforced by international corporations and bodies in airporttransport sector is responsible for airport capacity limitations.These regulations limit the number of passengers traveling within agiven period. During peak seasons, passengers may not be satisfiedwith the services offered by airports especially when unfavorableweather conditions prevail because bad weather conditions reduce therunway capacity thus reduced the number of aircrafts that can besupported on such runways. Delays are a result of such conditionswhich affect daily sales (EDWARDS B. (2004). Edwards alsosuggests that flight delays are major waste of time, money and fueland delays are common when there is arising traffic demand fortransport services while the airports capacity cannot accommodate it.

QUESTION 3

Proposed strategy for air transport in Buenos Aires

Ezeiza International has been expanded recently which included theconstruction of a third terminal (AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA, 2000).Therefore, expansion of the airport will result in environmentalissues in the surrounding settlement. Additional, expansion may facefinancial constraints due to the other expansion of terminal C. AEPairport, is close to the city that is composed of taller buildings.Expansion of the airport in order to accommodate more and largeraircrafts will be a threat to the dense urban settlement and tallbuildings. In order to improve the efficiency of operations of thetwo airports, it will be suitable when strategies are employed forimproving the capacities without the need for constructing newrunways (GILBO, 2002). The following strategies can be appliedin proper management of the two airports in Buenos Aires.

The management of the two airports should maximize the number ofpassengers thus resulting into increased number of routes flown fromthe two airports (Aeropuertus Argentina 2000). There will bean optimal balance between short-haul and long-haul routes. Suchpractice is not likely to cause unintended and negative outcomes(Aeropuertus Argentina 2000). When the number of departures isincreased beyond the number of passengers arriving at the twoairports, the runway capacities are increased (GILBO, 2002).This increases the airport`s ability to handle more aircrafts andpassengers.

The airspace configuration is associated with the capacity of anairport. In this sense, the capacity of an airport is affected by thenumber of runways that are available for aircrafts as well as theirconfigurations and efficient management and planning of airspace andthe utilization of the airports existing capacities (GILBO, E.P.(2002). Management of aviation operations and activities withinthe airports can improve runway capacity. Benchmarking will be thebest exercise the management can apply to conduct a thorough study ofthe strategies that other successful airports in the world do inincreasing capacity to handle more airports without the need forphysical expansion (GILBO, 2002).

Benchmarking is a process that demands lots of commitment andresources (time, money, personnel and equipment) to its effectiveness(NEUFVILLE &amp GUZMÁN, 2015, 12) Benchmarking involves foursteps: identification of key measures of capacity selection ofcomparable international airports worldwide collection of relevantdata about the identified airports in terms of the strategies theyemploy to increase capacity and analysis of the data collected anddevelopment of a report (NEUFVILLE &amp GUZMÁN, 2015, 12).The management practices recorded in the report are then comparedwith the facts about each of the two airports to assess thefeasibility the practices and Management practices that can best usethe existing airport capacity to address its demands are implemented(NEUFVILLE &amp GUZMÁN, 2015, 12).

Congestion at airports is one of the key traffic capacity problemsfaced in the two airports (Aeropuertus Argentina 2000). Thisproblem can be addressed through improvement of surface operationscomplex traffic can be effectively managed by use of automation. Thisapproach involves advanced surface-traffic-control automation andflight-deck automation. Automation significantly improvescommunication, navigation and surveillance technologies which the twoairports can benefits from when implemented. Insurface-traffic-control automation, ground-operation situationawareness and flow efficiency (GO-SAFE) improves the usage of runwaysespecially where delays are caused by active-runway crossing.Therefore, surface-traffic control automaton improves runway capacity(CHENG, 2002). GO-SAFE is enhanced by flight-deck automationfor reliable ground operations (FARGO) which provides the requiredflight-deck automation. Achievement of precise taxi control which isconsistent with GO-SAFE advisories. These strategies enable, highcoordinated automation systems, improves surface traffic performanceas a way of increasing capacity without interfering with safety andperformance of taxi.

In order to optimize traffic flows Aeropuertus Argentina shouldconsider the interaction between runway capacity and capacities ofarrival and departure fixes. From this perspective, runways and thefixes are considered single system resources while arrivals anddepartures are considered to be simultaneous interdependent processes(Aeropuertus Argentina 2000). Management should also do thedynamic time-dependent allocation of airport capacity and improvetraffic flows between arrivals and departures. This should be donedepending on the operational challenges at runways, demand andweather condition. The practices will also improve efficiency ofoperations within the two airports (GILBO, 2002).

Air-control systems also place the important role in the utilizationof the existing airport capacity (CHENG, 2002). Based onJamaica Bay Environmental Study Group, the introduction of advancedair-traffic control systems based on the new technology would allowfor an increment of the runway capacity of each of the two airportsof Buenos Aires (CHENG, 2002). Technological advancement inthe aviation sector is a continuous process with new developmentsexperienced every time. The runway combinations criteria should beemployed by the management to improve their runway utilization as away of improving their capacities. Technological advancements notedfrom other airports during the benchmark can be applied to thephysical design of AEP and Ezeiza. For effectiveness, thetechnologies used by the two airports in management of operations andprocesses should consist of general technology and specializedtechnology i.e. site-specific applications of technology which aretailored to meet demands of different sectors in the airport (HARRISR et al. 1988). Congestion of travelers and efficiency of servicedelivery will be addressed by the improvement of the technical designof the terminals. The improved physical design of Ezeiza will improvemovements within the terminals thus minimizing wastage of time, moneyand fuel.

TAP program should be adopted by the airport managements to maintainand improve the capacities of the airports even during unfavorableweather. TAP was proposed by NASA, and it is composed of technologiesthat will enable the two airports to operate during bad weather atthe rates they achieve only in good weather. The TAP technologies arereduced spacing operations (RSO), visibility landing and surfaceoperations (LVLASO), and air traffic management (ATM) (HEMM etal., 1999, 59). LVLASO will increase airport capacity through“…reducing aircraft runway occupancy time (ROT), separationrequirements, and taxi times in low visibility conditions”(DONOHUE, 2001)

The above strategies should be implemented into the operations of AEPand Ezeiza. They are effective in increasing airport capacities inorder to increase the number of departures and arrivals within aspecified period.

REFERENCES

(EZE) MinistroPistarini Airport Overview 2015), retrievedfromhttp://www.flightstats.com/go/Airport/airportDetails.do?airportCode=EZEon 16 September 2015

AEROPUERTOS ARGENTINA 2000, retrieved from http://www.aa2000.com.aron 16 September 2015

Airport system development, DIANE Publishing

CHENG, V.H.L. (2002), Collaborative automation systems for enhancingairport surface traffic efficiency and safety, Digital AvionicsSystems Conference, Vol. 1

DONOHUE, G. L. (2001).&nbspAir transportation systemsengineering. Reston, Va, American Institute of Aeronautics andAstronautics.

EDWARDS B. (2004), the Modern Airport Terminal: New Approaches toAirport Architecture, Taylor &amp Francis

GILBO, E.P. (2002), Optimizing airport capacity utilization in airtraffic flow management subject to constraints at arrival anddeparture fixes, Control Systems Technology, Vol. 5, issue 5

GRAHAM, A., PAPATHEODOROU, A., &amp FORSYTH, P. (2010).&nbspAviationand tourism: Implications for leisure travel. Farnham, England:Ashgate.

GREAT BRITAIN (2013).&nbspAviation strategy: First report ofsession 2013-14. London: Stationery Office.

HARRIS R. M et al. (1988), Technology to increase airport capacity,retrieved from http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.1980-920 on 19September 2015

HEMM R. ET. AL. (1999), Benefit Estimates of Terminal AreaProductivity Program Technologies, NASA/CR-1999-208989

JAMAICA BAY ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY GROUP., &amp NATIONAL RESEARCHCOUNCIL (U.S.). (1971).Jamaica Bay and Kennedy Airport: amultidisciplinary environmental study: A report. Washington:National Academy of Sciences.

LANDRUM &amp BROWN., NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (U.S.)., AIRPORTCOOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM., &amp UNITED STATES. (2010).&nbspAirportpassenger terminal planning and design. Washington, D.C:Transportation Research Board.

NEUFVILLE R. &amp GUZMÁN J. R 2013). Benchmarking for Design ofMajor Airports Worldwide, retrieved fromhttp://ardent.mit.edu/airports/ASP_papers/airport%20benchmarking.PDFon 16 September 2015

UNITED STATES. (1996).&nbspFAA/Airport Improvement Program(FAA/AIP) reauthorization: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce,Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred FourthCongress, second session, May 14, 1996. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

WORLD TRAVEL GUIDE, Buenos Aires MinistroPistarini InternationalAirport Guide (EZE), retrieved fromhttp://www.worldtravelguide.net/argentina/buenos-aires-ministro-pistarini-international-airporton 16 September 2015

ZAPOROZHETS O., TOKAREV V &amp ATTENBOROUGH K. (2011), AircraftNoise: Assessment, Prediction and Control, CRC Press.