Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests

Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests

AssessmentTools and Diagnostic Tests

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AssessmentTools and Diagnostic Tests

Validityand Reliability of the Test – (Mammogram)

Amammogram is a clinical test that entails the analysis of x-rayimages of the breast that detects cancerous cells in women who lackthe physical signs and symptoms of breast cancer. This test workswhen the breast is exposed to small amounts of iodizing radiationthat results in an image of the breast tissue. The Journalof Immigrant &ampMinority Healthis a resourceful journal that provides well-detailed information anddata about the mammogram tests and screening results for Americanfemale patients (Shaw,Huebner, Armin, Orzech, &amp Vivian, 2009).

Sensitivity,Specificity and Predictive Values of the Test

Themammogram test requires the female patient to place their breasts ontwo firm surfaces which spreads the breast tissues during the x rayprocedure. The spreading of the breast tissues allows the physicianto carefully scrutinize the breast tissues for any abnormal cellgrowth and other anomalies. Due to the sensitivity of the test,female patients are required to be still and undressed on their upperbodies so that the x-ray image is highly enhanced for better results.

Controversiesof the Test

However,over the past decades there have been controversies of the mammogramtest because in some cases it fails to detect the presence of cancercells in the breast region resulting in cancer deaths among women.Moreover, this test exposes patients to radiation which causesunpredictable side effects during old age.

EthicalDilemmas of the Test

Dueto the radiation aspect of the test, medical professionals havequestioned the efficiency of mammogram tests on women especiallythose aged between 40 and 70 years old (Qaseem, Alguire, Dallas, Feinberg, Fitzgerald, Horwitch, &ampWeinberger,2012).

Howthe test is used in Health Care

Thistest has reduced the number of cancer deaths in developed countriesby 90%. This proves that the test is valid and reliable when testingpatients who lack symptoms of the illness. Over the years, doctorshave utilized mammogram to predict the likelihood of female patientscontracting breast cancer at any stage in their lives. Hence, itserves as a prediction test that helps women to understand theirbreast health and take the necessary precautions against contractingbreast cancer


Laine,C. (2012). High-valuetesting begins with a few simple questions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(2),162–163.Retrievedfrom the Walden Library databases.

Shaw,S. J., Huebner, C., Armin, J., Orzech, K., &amp Vivian, J. (2009).Therole of culture in health literacy and chronic disease screening andmanagement. Journal of Immigrant &amp Minority Health,11(6), 460–467.&nbsp Retrievedfrom the Walden Library databases.

Qaseem,A., Alguire, P., Dallas, P., Feinberg, L. E., Fitzgerald, F. T.,Horwitch, C., &amp … Weinberger, S. (2012). Appropriate use ofscreening and diagnostic tests to foster high- value, cost-consciouscare.Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(2),147–150.Retrievedfrom the Walden Library databases.