Arabs in Different Paths in 20th Century

Arabs in Different Paths in 20th Century


Arabsin Different Paths in 20thCentury

Arabsdifferent paths in 20thCentury regarding Lebanon, Iraq, and Lebanon


Arabtook diverse paths in the 20thcentury. During the period of uniting with Egypt, the first revivalstimulus of the Syrian Baath party came from Syrian officers who werestationedin Egypt. The committee included Am in al-hafiz, Sunni, Hamad Ubaydand the two Alawis, Jadid and Muhammad Imran. The Syrian Baath Partyafter secession from UAR wasestablishedat a party congress. After the coup, Baathist associates moved toreplace the coup leaders from senior army positions by forming arevolutionary command.

Thecoming to power for the Baath Party is the revolution postulated inthe Baathist ideology. Diverse factional differences developedbetween pan-Arab nationalist adhering to old guard Baath Bitar andAflaq leadership and those who were known, emphasized Syria first.The principal area of dispute was the attitude towards the unity ofArabs regarding reunion with Egypt or Iraq union or both. NeoBaathist believed that land reforms and nationalization measuresstated under Nasser but reverse during the Conservative interregnum.


Baathwas more organized and determined to stay in power 1968 than that of1963. Nasser manipulated the politics in Iraq. Between 1968 and 1973there were series of execution, sham trials, intimidations,assassination, the party eliminated the person were suspected ofchallenging Baath rule. Baath institutionalized the rule formally andthe interim constitution with some modifications in effect. Bakr andSadaam Hussein dominated the part where Bakr was connected to Arabnationalists for more than a decade brought through famouslegitimacy. Sadaam Hussein was the consummate party. The real powerdespite the Baath attempt of institutionalizing remained in the handsof narrowly based elites (Benhabib,2014).

TheAssad after taking power quickly moved in creating an organizationalinfrastructure for the government. With Baath party, the remainingseats were divided among organizations that were very popular. TheBaath party in 1971 held the regional congress and elected 21 membercommands in the region that were headed by Assad. The nationalreferendum at the same time elected the president for a seven-yearterm. The transfer of power from Jadid to Assad was regarded as amoderate and a conservative movement away from the radicalism of thecommunist.


Inthe foreign affairs, the relations of Syria with the Soviet Unionstrained but then improved dramatically. The relations of Syria withthe Arab states more so in Libya and Egypt became more cordial asdemonstrated in the formation of the short-lived Federation in 1971of the Arab Republic made up of Libya, Syria, and Egypt. Thepermanent constitution in 1973 went to effect thus strengtheningAssad. Nevertheless, the regime of Assad had underlying tension. Theseverest test for Assad regime came because of the Syrianintervention in the Lebanese war, Assad was settled firmly tostabilize the volatile the situation in Lebanon. The Syrianintervention in effect against the Arabs left aggravated therelations with other Arab countries. The intervention in Lebanon wasexpensive economically. In the 20thcentury, the Muslim Brotherhood ambushed the forces of thegovernment.

TheBaath held power for less than a year. Foundering of the unity talksbetween Nasser and Baathist regime was most damaging in Syria. Whenthe plans to unite failed, Nasser launched a vituperative campaignthat challenged Baath legitimacy. The attack of Nasser eroded regimelegitimacy that espoused pan-Arabism.

SaddamHusayn ambitious plans in 1979 and the course of history for theArabs were altered drastically by Shah of Iran overthrow. He viewedthat the Islamic revolution of 1979 as an opportunity and a threat.The Shah downfall and the confusion that prevailed in thepost-revolutionary Iran suited Saddam`s ambitions. A rather weakenedIran presented an opportunity for power in Iraq over the Gulf war inregaining the control of Shatt al Arab waterway and augmenting theclaims of Iraq to the leadership of the Arab world. The activiststhreatened the security in Iraq. In the history of the Arabs, Shiashave been economically distressed and politically impotent.

Evenwith the economic boom brought by the oil boom, the populist ofSaddam economic policies had an impact on them thus enabling many tojoin Shia new ranks.The widespread demonstration of Shia took place in 1977 where thegovernment closed Karbala when they suspected that there was a bombat the height of the religious pilgrimage. The Islamic revolution inIran transformed the dissatisfaction of Shia with Baath based on theopposition. Baath leadership feared Islamic revolution success inIran since it would serve as an inspiration to the Iraqi Shias. In1980, border skirmishes erupted near Qasr-e Shirin with artilleryfire exchange where Saddam abrogated the treaty between Iran andIraq.

Themilitary coup brought competing factions and interest groupstogether. All the groups apart from pro-Nasser faction participatedin general elections. Though the part labels were never used, onlyconservatives and the moderates elected a few Baathist to theAssembly. The new assembly elected Qudsi as the president and henamed Maruf as the Prime Minister. The new government succeeded inpleasing a few and alienating many and thus a military coup tookplace.