Answers to Questions

Answers to Questions


Answersto Questions


1.Explain how the early Mesoamerican (Middle America) civilizationsevolved? What characteristics were common with previous civilizationswe have studied so far? In your view, how would you interpret itsoverall impact on our modern day society?

During the period ofclassical Mesoamerica, the Olmecs demonstrated many achievements,including building pyramids and defining an accurate calendar. TheMesoamerica community continued to show great diversity and remainedisolated from other civilization. However, like other civilization,people in Mesoamerica depended on the cultivation of corn, squash andbeans for subsistence. All travels and trade were made by foot sincethere were no draft animals nor wheels. The early Mesoamericanculture also had various social communities. Most were highlystratified with an elite class in control of the government andsocial classes of merchants, warriors, farmers and artisans. Peoplelived in city states that were empires. The religion in Mesoamericawas polytheistic with each society having its set of religiousbelieve with many gods. Some rituals were performed throughoutMesoamerica like the Ball Game, which emulated a game played by thegods. Ball courts can be found on archeological sites from manycultures throughout Mesoamerica (Adams 2005). Obsidian just likecurrency in our modern day society was used and exchange throughoutMesoamerica by all cultural groups. The early Mesoamericademonstrates an evolution of class, culture, and religion in ourmodern society.

2.What factors made it difficult for the Greeks to organize themselvesinto political entities above the level of the polis?

The activities ofthe Greeks demanded all citizens to take part in and decide themanner in which they lived together communally on equal footing.Citizens were all allowed to take part in open debates, discussed inlength and above all judicial, administrative and legislativematters. Decisions were voted upon all citizens present in theassorted institutions only after open debates between thoseparticipating. Definition of politic demands its functional looks todefine specific relations between human according to existinginstitution or structure. Therefore, Greek could only rely on polisas there was not a developed political organization to shape thepolitical life of the Greek. Besides, the dynamic elements ofpolitics are determined by the institutions, and structural settingas the tensions between different individuals is interacting. Also,it recognizes that human volition plays a part in the determinationof politics.

3.Given their rationalism during the Classical Age, why do you supposeGreek men still treated women and slaves as inferior?

The classical agewomen in Greek were believed to be peripheral to the male-centricsociety thus treated as lesser beings. Aristotle points out in hismisogynistic theory when he narrates that women were inferior to men.He uses this theory to lay a foundation for men to control women.Besides, women receive the extensive classification of sinfulness.just as Christian belief that the first women on earth caused all ofthe sufferings in the world, the Greek believed that women wereaccountable for all hardship. This is evident in Hesiod’s theory ofTheogony where connected the appearance of women late in the world ofan evil thing that resulted in Zeus punishing men. According toHesiod, women are wicked beings that bring toil and suffering to men.Consequently, the classical Greek women had an inferior statussimilar to slave and animal. Marriage was the only means of survivalof these women. Women were delivered from their fathers to theirhusband in an arranged marriage. Besides, wifes were supposed tosupport their husbands without questions. They depended on them asprotector, provider as if she was part of the household.


Adler, P. Pouwels, R. (2007). World Civilizations: Volume 1: To1700. Retrieved from