American Government

American Government



TheAmerican government, which is also referred to as federal governmentis curtained into three main branches by the Constitution of theUnites States. This ensures that there is a dominant government inwhich neither a single person nor a group gets too much power andjurisdiction. The three branches of the are thelegislative, the executive and the judiciary (Reynolds,2007).The legislative, which is also known as the congress, is the branchthat is responsible for making laws, the executive, which iscomprised of the president, the vice president and the cabinet isresponsible for carrying out and enforcing laws, and the judicial,which is made of the supreme court as well as other courts, is theone that evaluates laws. Nonetheless, all the above branches canalter actions of the other two branches. For instance, the president,who is a member of the executive branch, has the power to veto lawsapproved or endorsed by the legislative. Furthermore, the legislativecan approve or reject the appointments of the president and have thepower as well to bring down the president from power in some specialor unique situations. As noted by Reynolds(2007),the core objective of the U.S. federal government is to create asense of balance in its branches for the sake of its citizens. Thepart of this paper looks at various departments or agencies underexecutive branch, and their roles, which play a role regarding thecountry’s nuclear weapons.

TheExecutive Branch consists of fifteen departments. The ExecutiveBranch power is hugely bestowed in the president, who as well acts asthe commander-in-chief of the armed forces as well as head of state[CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].The role of the president is not only to implement but as wellenforce the laws laid down by the legislative. He or she aswell appoints the cabinet. Of the 15 executive departments, thedepartments that have a role regarding the nation’s nuclear weaponsare Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Homeland Security,Department of State, as well as Department of Justice (DOJ) [ CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].

Departmentof Defense (DOD) has a great mission of providing the requiredmilitary or armed forces to discourage war so as to safeguard thenation’s security [ CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].Department of Defense (DOD) is made up several departments such asAir Force, Army, Navy and many other agencies. Departmentof Defense (DOD)’s role in the nation’s nuclear weapons is toensure that the weapons are used appropriately and in the manner thatthey are intended for [ CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].This department as well ensures that the nuclear weapons aresafeguarded and well-kept until when they are needed. Department ofHomeland Security (DHS) ensures that any terrorist attack is barredas well as disordered. It comprises of agencies such as SecretService, The U.S. Custom Service and many other security agencies[ CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].The role of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to make useof the nation’s nuclear weapons whenever the nation is under anattack from terrorists. Departmentof Homeland Security (DHS) uses nuclear weapons to patrol thenation’s borders as well as offer protection to pilgrims and reactto tragedy and disasters [ CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].Department of Justice (DOJ) is mandated to enforce the law as well asensure safety against internal and external threats. It includesagencies such as the U.S. Marshals. Lastly, the Department of Stateplays a major role in nation’s nuclear weapons.This role is manifested in the external military training programs aswell as refuting international crimes [ CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].In nuclear weapons, Department of State helps in using them in caseof any threat to the president or the state at large [ CITATION Pen12 l 1033 ].

ThePolicy-making Process of Federal Education Policy

FederalEducation is a current policy in the United States of America, whichwas developed to safeguard each and every child’s wellbeing interms of education. The policy states that no child is supposed to beleft behind when it comes to excellent and quality education [ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].Quality education is the common core of this policy. The followingare stages of the policy-making process of the Federal Educationpolicy.

Introductionof the Policy and Referral to a committee

Thebill or policy is introduced by any member of the legislative branch.This can be a member of the House or Senate, who is allowed toinclude his or her name as a cosponsor. This can only be done afterthe introduction day [ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].After the bill is identified, it is then referred to a committee thathas more authority than the basic matter of the statute [ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].This can be through a number of committees.

TheAction of the Committee

Theperson who can determine if the policy will be heard before the houseor if there will be a “mark up” is the chairperson of thecommittee. There can be subcommittee or committee hearings [ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].When all or most of the members of the committee convene formallyto propose amendments to alter some clauses in the proposed bill thatis what is referred to a “mark up”. After the amendments, thebill can either be vetoed or adopted by the chairperson of thecommittee. If the amendments are adopted, the bill now moves to thenext stage (Wood,1998).


Thechairperson of the committee, or his/her staff, comes up with areport concerning the bill. This report will include the intentionsof the legislation, its past activities, the results it has on theprevailing regulations, as well as each committee member’s positionconcerning the bill [ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].At this stage, the bill can be printed in the Report [ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].The bill is then moved to the next stage which is house or senatedebate and votes.

FloorDebate and Votes

Thereare two people who will determine the go ahead of the bill at thisstage. These two people are the Senate’s Majority Leader as well asThe Speaker of the House. At this stage, the bill will come beforethe house for debating as well as further amendments. This will thenlead to final enactment of the bill [ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].A majority vote at this stage is vital for the final enactment aswell as amendment. If the bill is passed at this stage, it is thenreferred to the other chamber, where it will go through the sameprocedure. The chamber will accept, amend, ignore or veto the bill.The bill will then go to the next stage for a like-minded vote. Therecan only be this vote at this stage if the bill has minoralterations. In case of major changes, the bill goes to conferencecommittee so as to mergethe differences[ CITATION Ben01 l 1033 ].Thetwo houses have to approve the report of the conference for the billto go to the next stage. The final bill is then sent to the presidentfor the approval. If the president signs it, it then passes into law.However, the president has the power to veto the bill. These are thestages that federal education policy went through to become a bill.


gov, U. (2012, December 10). The Executive Branch. Retrieved from web site:

Granham, B. (2001, May 9). Steps in Making a Bill a Law: The Federal Legislative Process. Retrieved from Naeyc.Org web site:

Reynolds, Glenn Harlan (2007). &quotIs Dick Cheney Unconstitutional?&quot. Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy (Chicago: Northwestern University School of Law) 102 (110).

Wood, Gordon S. (1998). The creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787. Gordon S. Wood, Institute of Early American History and Culture (Williamsburg, Va.)