AIR TRANSPORT IN BUENOS AIRES THE CASE OF TWO AIRPORTS IN ONE CITY

AIR TRANSPORT IN BUENOS AIRES THE CASE OF TWO AIRPORTS IN ONE CITY

Transport 4

AIRTRANSPORT IN BUENOS AIRES: THE CASE OF TWO AIRPORTS IN ONE CITY

Amongthetopconcernsin anyregion’sgrowthanddevelopmentare infrastructures.Transportfacilitatinginfrastructureis paramount,holdinga significantrole.Theacquisitionof resourcesfrom rawmaterials,laborandothervitalinputsare allowedby transport.Exploringthemarket,including exportingproductsandservicesis a vividdescriptionof outputenabledby transportation.Among thetopglobal transportationchannelsare theroad,airandrailwaytransport.In thisassignment,Buenos Aires, thecapitalcityof Argentina anda regionservedby two airportsnamelyAeroparque-Jorge Newbery andEzeiza-Ministro Pistarini, is thecentralfocuspoint.Theassignmentwill researchhowtheairportsoperateandtheeffectsof theoperations,bothon a localandbroaderperspective.Question1Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery airportAccessandpopulationserved Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery airportactsas themaindomesticflightsairportin Buenos Aires. However,theairportalsoservessomeinternationalflightsin theneighbouringcountriesincluding Brazil, Chile, andParaguay among others. Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery’s location,isfifteen minutes(2 km) awayfrom downtownBuenos Aires andon Costanera Avenue, facilitatingforits convenienceas itis easilyaccessedandutilisinglimitedtime(&quotAeroparqueJorge Newbery&quot). Operatedby Aeropuertos Argentina 2000 S.A., Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery airportcoversan areaof three hundred andforty-one acres.Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airport,apartfrom servingthepublic,alsoservesthemilitarywith theArgentine Air Force stationhavingits locationon theeasternendof theairport.Thelocationis wheretheTango 01 presidentialaircraft isboardedwith theauthoritiesboarding usingthesamestation(&quotAeroparqueJorge Newbery&quot).Politicsandterminals In1925, Mayor Carlos Noel initiallyproposedfortheAeroparque-Jorge Newbery airport,andtheproposalwasreceivedwith zoningdisputesfrom thefeasibilitystudiesthat wereconducted(FernandesAnd Pacheco, 2002).In 1945, Aeroparque 17 de Octuberwasinauguratedwith its creationmadeby Victor Acuna, thethenAeronautics Secretariat engineer(Paul,1960). Theairportservedat a runway of 1000 metreswith theoperationsbeginningon January of 1948 andservingas themainhubfordomesticflightsfrom Buenos Aires andan internationalflightto Uruguay (BuenosAires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport, n.d).Therunway laterreceivedextensiontotaling1550 metersandthefirstterminalcompletedin 1951, till 1955 wheretheairportwasrenamedin honorof Jorge Newbery, thepioneerof Argentine aviation. In1960, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportreceivedfurtherdevelopmentwith theintroductionof anotherterminalandtherunway expandedto 2070 meters((Paul,1960)..In 1965, a smallbasewasconstructedfortheArgentine Airforce near theeasternend.Thetotalterminalareafurtherincreasedto 30000m2 following an inaugurationof a newterminalforthenationalcarrier,Aerolineas Argentinas. In 1998, Aeropuertos Argentina 2000 tookover theoperationsof Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportfollowing theprivatization of thepublicairports(Lipovich,2008).In 2009, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportrunway receivedan extensionby 180 metresfollowedby the2011’s expansionanddevelopmentof terminalIII andIV andtherunway nowtooktheareaof 35000m2 (Anil,1995). Withthedevelopmentsof theterminalsandtheinaugurationin 2014, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportmassively increasedthepassenger’scapacityto an approximateof doubletheamount(Doganis,2002).Beingthefirstairportto passa ten million passengermark,Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery Airport is thebusiestairportin Argentina in agreementwith passengertraffic,servingup to one-third of thescheduledairtrafficin thenation.In 2009, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airporttotalled93346 as thenumberof aircraft movements(BarrosAnd Dieke, 2008).By 2014, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportmarked10255541 passengersusingtheairportforeitherdomesticoravailableinternationalflights. Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery holdsthestateof theartfacilitiesincorporatinghightechnology features(Anil,1995).Thefacilities,from infrastructural considerations,allowtheairportto servethenumerouspassengerseffectivelyon a dailybasis.Thefriendlystaffmembersare wellequippedandexperienced,makingAeroparque-Jorge Newbery an outstandingtransportmediain Buenos Aires (Anil,1995).Economicandoperational challenges Likeanyothertransportmedium,Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airporthavechallenges.In agreementwith theavailablestatistics, theairporthas recordedsomeaccidentsandincidents,including thedamageof Vickers Viscount CX-AQO in 1957. Theplanewasdamagedbeyond economicrepair(Cento,2009).The1999 Boeing 737-200 crashthat wassaidto be causedby piloterrorresultedin sixty-three deathsout of thehundred passengersandcrewmemberson board.Statistics

Thetrafficstatistics, as provided,showsthevaryingpassengersandcargomovementsby Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery Airport from 2009 to 2013 samplingtheideaof theairport’scapacity Intheyear2009, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery servedup to a totalof 6449344 passengersandcargoof 13700 metric tonswith aircraft operationsamounting to 91676. 2010 receivedan increasedwith passengersbeing7558149 andcargoat 18945 andaircraft operationsincreasingto 104857 (BuenosAires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport).Thefollowingyearstookthesameincremental passengerpattern.Thenumbergrewto 8250971 in 2011, 8849465 for2012 and9552504 in theyear2013. Thecontinuedinfrastructuredevelopmentsenabledtheairportto handletheincreasingtrafficeffectively,with theairlinesoperationsalsoincreasing(BuenosAires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport).Among theairlinesoperatingin Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery andsomesampledestinationsincludes

AerolineasArgentinas – Asuncion, Tucuman and seasonal services toFlorianopolis

AndesLineas Aeras– Puerto

GolTransporters Aeros – Sao Paulo-Guarulhos

LADE– San Carlos de Bariloche

LANAirlines – Santiago de Chile

LANArgentina – Ushuaia, Salta, San Juan and seasonal services toMalargue

MacairJet – Villa Maria

SolLineas Areas – Bahia Blanca, Mar del Plata and seasonal services to

TAMAirlines – Sao Paulo-Guarulhos

Question2 Beforeanalyzingthecurrentsituationof Bueno Aires, a citywith two airports,itis necessaryto reviewthesecondairport,Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport. Areview,examiningtheairport’saccess,terminalsandservicesis as followsEzeizaMinistro Pistarini International AirportAccessandpopulationserved Locatedat a distanceof approximatelytwenty-one milessouthwest of Buenos Aires, Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini InternationalAirport is thelargestairportin Buenos Aires (BuenosAires Ezeiza International Airport).Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport serveson an intercontinental basis,servingpassengersandcargodestinedforEurope, North America among othercontinents(Belobaba,2009).Asa consequenceof theservicesoffered,Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport is themostsignificantairportin Buenos Aires. Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport isalsoArgentina’s largestinternationalairportin agreementwith the85% of passengersservedon an internationaltrafficplatform. EzeizaMinistro Pistarini International Airport occupiesan areaof 3475 hectares with its operationsservingBueno Aires andits metropolitanareashandledby Aeropuertos Argentina 2000 S.A (Lipovich,2008).Theeaseof access,mostlyby roadutilizingRiccheri Highway facilitatesforEzeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport conveniencein facilitatingforinternationaltransportation.Thepresenceof a nearby railwaystationwith localbusesservingfrom thestationto theairportfurtherfacilitatesforan easedaccessmodel(BuenosAires Ezeiza International Airport).Themostconventionaldesign,however,is by airportshuttle buses,taxesas wellas thelimousine.Politicsandterminals In1945, thethenministerof publicworks,Juan Pistarini placedthecornerstonefortheEzeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport project(Paul,1960).Namedafter thethengeneralandpoliticianJuan Pistarini, Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airportconstructionbegan,with Argentine techniciansdesigninganderectingtheairport.Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport constructionis to dateone of themajorprojectsundertakenduring thefive-year planof Juan Peron firstpresidency(Garffoglio,2011).Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport wasopenedandemergedas thethirdlargestairportin theworld.Thefirstcivilflightwasrecordedin 1946. Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airportoperateson three majorterminals,A, B andC. Terminal C wasinauguratedin 2011 andis mainlyusedby Aerolineas Argentinas, Alitalia andAir France (Pagani,2011).With an areaof 28795 squaremeters,terminalB, from 2013 inaugurationis primarilyusedby Aerolineas Argentinas andKLM. Thenumberof airlinesoperatingfrom Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport is numerous.TheairlinesincludeTerminalB andC (Garffoglio,2011)

Aerolineasmainlyoperatingon terminalC with thedestinationsincluding Barcelona, Carcas,Cordoba, Bogota, andAsuncion among others

KLMutilizingterminalC as wellas B anddestinationsbeingAmsterdam, Santiago de Chile

DeltaAirlines operatingon terminalC servingAtlanta

AirFrance serves destination Montevideo, Paris-Charles de Gaulleutilizes terminal b and cTerminalA isusedby multipleairlinesandis one of thebusiestterminals.AirlinesutilizingterminalA andtheir destinationsincludebutnot limitedto

Aeromexicoservingto Mexico City

AirEuropa – Madrid

AirCanada – Toronto-Pearson and Santiago de Chile

Avianca– Bogota

AviancaCosta Rica – Lima

Conviasa– Carcas

BritishAirways – London-Heathrow

CopaAirlines – Panama City

Cubande Aviacion – Havana and Varadero and also Cayo Coco on a seasonalbasis

Bolivianade Aviacion – Cochamba Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Viru Viru and La Paz

AviancaPeru – Lima

LANAirlines – Santiago de Chile andNew York-JFK among otherairlinesservingdiversedestinationsincluding LAN Argentina, LAN Peru, Qatar Airways, TAM Airlines, andthelistholdsnumerousairlines.

CargocarriersalsoutilizeEzeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport fordifferentdestinations.TheairlinesincludeAir classdestinationbeingMontevideo, MasAir servingMexico City, Lufthansa Cargo servingCampinas, Dakar andFrankfurt. OthercargoairlinesincludeMartinair Cargo, UPS Airlines, LAN Cargo, Florida West InternationalAirways, Cielos Airlines among others.

Economicand operational challenges

Likeotherairportsandtransportationchannels,Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport is facedby challengesthat affecttheeconomicconditions(Berry,Carnall, and Spiller, 2006).Apartfrom theusualincomefrom thepassengersandcargotransportation,theproblemof accidentsandincidentsis present.Among therecordedaccidentsandincidentsincludesthe2003 accidentwhereCATA Lineas Aereencountereda technicaldifficultyafter takingoff from theairport((Cento,2009)).Theaircraft accidentresultedin five deathsof all theoccupantswhenitbustedinto flames.Thecurrentsituationof a citywith two airports Efficientandadequatetransportinfrastructureis crucialto anyregion.Beingthecapitalcityanda centralbusinessin Argentina, Buenos Aires receivesa vastnumberof people.Thepeople,in a domesticandinternationalcapacity,visitthecityforvaryingreasons,among them beingbusiness,tourism, education,seekingmedicalattention,governmentservicesamong others (Podalsky,2002).Theairportsas such,are a pivotalconsiderationthat supportsthecityandthenationat large.Thesituationsaffectedby theairportsincludeImprovedinfrastructure Asa meansof accessingtheairports,thegovernmenthadto constructroads,facilitatetheinstallationelectricityas a sourceof energyfortheairportsandimprovethestandardsof securityin theregion(Anil,1995).Improvedinfrastructuremeansimprovedlivingstandardsamong thepopulacesurroundingthearea.Thepopulacealsobenefitsfrom theconsequentialdevelopmentsas a resultof theimprovedinfrastructuresuchas accessto electricityandcommunicationinfrastructureamong others (Martín-Cejas,2002).Heightenedinvestments Fromtheairports’developments,thenumberof passengerscomingandleavingBuenos Aires continuously grows.Thesituationleadsto improvedsocialinteractions.Theinteractionsleadto a greaterconcept,growthanddevelopmentof thecity(Barrosand Dieke, 2008).Through theinteractions,investors cometogether,establishingconnectionsleadingto innovative establishments.Suchinvestors’ setsup businessesventuresin andoutside thecity,a conceptfacilitatedby theconvenienceof transportationenabledby theairports(Doganis,2002).Thebusinessesare thestartpointof growthanddevelopmentin thecity,andtheimpactis not onlyfeltin thecitybutnationwideas moreinvestors accessthenationthrough thewell-established airports.Trade Heightenedinvestmentsenablegrowthof commerce.Trade,theexchangeof goodsandservices,is a vitaleconomiceffect.Theairports,servingon a domesticas wellas on an intercontinental basetakesthetradeat entirelynewlevels. Investors andclients,on an intercontinental platform,can easilyaccessBuenos Aires, thanksto theairtransportenabledby theairports(Socolow,1978).Thetwo airports,one servingdomesticandnearby countries,andtheotheron an intercontinental base,meansconvenienceat an impeccablestatus.Theconvenienceis as a resultof thespecializedservicesas theairportsconcentrateon one coverage area,enablingefficientserviceprovision.Improvedlivingstandards Theheightenedinvestmentsandimprovedtradealsomeansan improvedlivingstandardin theregion.Employmentis crucialforthepopulacein improvingthelivingstandards.Theairportsprovideemployment.Employmentis furtherincreasedby thepresenceof theairports,directlyandindirectly(Paul,1960).Theroadandrailwaytransportis one of thedirectlyaffectedemploymentareas.Astheairportscontinueto operate,thepeoplewill requiretheroadandrailtransportation,to connectfrom theairportsto thedestinedlocation.Theestablishedventuresas a resultof easeof transportationandimprovedinfrastructureare an indirectjobcreationmodeenabledby theairports.Tourism Tourismis one of thebeneficialeconomicconceptsforanynation(Podalsky,2002).Aconcretereinforcementof tourism is efficientandadequateactivetransportmedium.Through theestablishmentanddevelopmentof thetwo airports,domesticandinternationaltourism is facilitated.Peoplecan easilymovefrom one regionto theotherquicklyutilizingairtransportthan theothertransportmodels.ImprovedtravelmeansincreasedincomeforBuenos Aires as wellas Argentina (Podalsky,2002).Theincomeis thenusedto improvefurtherthecity’sconditions,establishingusefulundertakingssuchas schoolsandmedicalfacilitiesin thearea.Improvedforeignrelations Asa majorcityandfederalcapitalof Argentina, Buenos Aires holdssomeof thevitalgovernmentfacilities.Accessto suchfacilitiesis essentialin thecreationof betterforeignrelations,as officialsfrom foreignnationscan easilyvisitthefacilities(Belobaba,2009).Strengthsandweaknessesof operatingthetwo airportsinthesamecity Theoperationsof thetwo airportsin Buenos Aires revealthesignificantstrengthandminimal,ifanyweaknesses.Themajorstrengthis as a resultof specialization of services.With one airportconcentratingon providinginternationalflights,theoperationsare customized to meetinternationalstatus(Malighetti,Martini, Paleari, and Redondi, 2009).Thedomesticflightsconcentratedin Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery revealan efficientflightflowwith minimumhiccups, meaningthattheactivitiesin one cityare adequate.Sharingof resourcesis themajorweakness.Energy,theprimarysourcebeingelectricity,has a directimpacton theoperationsof theairports.Forinstancesof interruptedsupply,thetwo airportswill sufferfrom deterioratedservicesunlike at instanceswheretheywerelocatedin differentregions. BuenosAires, as a destinationas wellas a connectingpoint,is a well-established capitalcityof Argentina. Thecityholdsresourcesandfacilitiescapableof satisfyingthemassivetrafficfrom thedomesticandinternationalmovements.Asa destination,thecitycontainsvaryingactivitiesfrom commercial,tourism andinnovative activities.Asa connectionpoint,thecityfacilitatesforan easedandconvenientchannels.Question3StrategyforBuenos Aires Asa city,Buenos Aires benefitssignificantly from theoperationsof thetwo airports.Thepoliciescurrently in placeoperateefficiently. Through privatization of theservices,lesserpoliticalinterferenceis felt.Assuch,strategiesin placeare mostlyas a resultof innovative andresearchorientedbase.HoldingtheFederal Capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires containsforty-eight districtsandis alsoknownto be the22nd mostpopulated urbancentrein theworld,with an approximatepopulationof overfourteen million. Asa meansto maximize theeconomicbenefits,Buenos Aires administrationcan implementstrategiesto improvethetourism concept.Thoughthecityprovidesa platformfortheculturalevent,nightlife andrestaurantsholdingworldcuisine,thecitycan incorporatestrategiesthat would seetourism sectorfurtherbeneficial.Theimpactof intercontinental touristis not fullymaximized, as a resultof thedistancebetween theinternationalairports,Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport andAeroparque-Jorge Newbery. Theprimarymeansof connectionfrom thetwo airportsis by road.Roadtransportis easilyaffectedby circumstances. Astrategyto improvetheconnectionbetween thetwo airports,in additionto theexpressbusesandshuttle services,can quicklyimpacton tourism. Itis possiblewheretheintercontinental visitorseasilyaccessthedomesticairport,transportingthem to varyingArgentine destination.Theperiodusedto connectfrom thetwo airportscan easilydistractthetouristsleadingto theminimumimpactof thevisit. Anintroductionof airtransportconnectingthetwo airportscan facilitateforimprovedaccessandreducedcostsin Buenos Aires as wellas reducingtheroadtrafficthatat timescause chaoticoccurrence.At instancesof arrivingat Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery in oddhours,youcan easilyfeelthelonelinessas mostpartsaredesertedwith onlya fewpresent.Assuch,theintroductionof directairconnectionoperatingon a 24-hour basisis an excellentimprovement.

References

&quotAeroparqueJorge Newbery&quot.&nbsp

&nbspAirportinformation for Ministro Pistarini Airport&nbsp

AnilK., 1995, Airportinfrastructure: The emerging role of the private sector

BarrosC. and Dieke P. 2008, “Measuring the Economic Efficiency ofAirports: A Simar-Wilson Methodology Analysis”, TransportationResearch Part E, 44.

Belobaba,P. 2009, TheGlobal Airline Industry.John Wiley and Sons, Chicheste

Berry,S., Carnall, M. and Spiller, P. 2006. AirlineHubs: Costs, Markups and the Implications of Customer Heterogeneity,Advancesin airline economics, CompetitionPolicy and Antitrust.Cap. 8: 183-214. Elsevie

BuenosAires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport Retrieved from

http://centreforaviation.com/profiles/airports/buenos-aires-aeroparque-jorge-newbery-airport-aep

BuenosAires Ezeiza International Airport Retrieved from:

http://centreforaviation.com/profiles/airports/buenos-aires-ezeiza-international-airport-eze

Cento,A. 2009, TheAirline Industry. Challenges in the 21st Century.Physica-Verlag Heidelberg, Alemania.

Doganis,R. 2002. Flyingoff Course, The Economics of International Airlines , Routledge.

FernandesE. and Pacheco R. 2002, Efficient use of Airport Capacity.TransportationResearch Part A, 36.

Garffoglio,L., 2011, Ezeiza`snew terminal commences operations.The Original

Lipovich,G.A.2008, The privatization of Argentine airports. Journalof Air Transport Management, 14,1.

Larra,R. 1975,&nbspJorgeNewbery.Buenos Aires,Schapire.

Malighetti,G, Martini, G, Paleari, S and Redondi, R 2009, “The Impacts ofAirport Centrality in the EU Network and Inter- Airport Competitionon Airport Efficiency”, MPRAPaper No. 17673.

Martín-Cejas,R., 2002, An approximation to productive efficiency of the Spanishairports networks through a deterministic cost frontier. Journalof Air Transport Management 8

Pagani,J, 2011, &quotEzeiza`s new terminal C started operations yesterday.Archivedfrom the Original

&nbspPaul,J., 1960. &quotAircraft Development in Argentina&quot. AirPictorial,Volume 22, No. 5, May 1960, pp.&nbsp145–148, 179

Podalsky,L, 2002,&nbspSpecularCity:Transforming Culture, Consumption,and Space in Buenos Aires,1955-1973.&nbspTempleUniversity Press

Socolow,S., 1978, TheMerchants of Buenos Aires, 1778–1810: Family and Commerce.CambridgeUniversity Press


AIR TRANSPORT IN BUENOS AIRES THE CASE OF TWO AIRPORTS IN ONE CITY

AIR TRANSPORT IN BUENOS AIRES THE CASE OF TWO AIRPORTS IN ONE CITY

Transport 6

AIRTRANSPORT IN BUENOS AIRES: THE CASE OF TWO AIRPORTS IN ONE CITY

Infrastructuresare an important aspect for the development and growth of any urbancenter in the globe. Studies have linked transport to economicgrowth, increased trade and social interaction in the 21stcentury. Theacquisitionand cost of resourcesfrom rawmaterials,laborand other vital inputsare partly determined by the nature of infrastructure. Among thetopglobal transportationchannelsare roads,airand railway transport.In thisassignment,Buenos Aires, thecapital cityof Argentina andthe regiontwoairportsAeroparque-JorgeNewbery andEzeiza-MinistroPistarini,will be thecentral focus.Thisworkwill researchhow the two airports operate and the effectsof theiroperations,bothon a localand international realm.

Question1

Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery airport

Accessand population served

AeroparqueJorge Newbery is the main domestic gateway to Argentina. The airporthandles about a third of all the air traffic in Argentina and issituated near the downtown Buenos Aires, approximately 4o kilometersfrom the country’s main international gateway, the Buenos AiresEzeiza International Airport. The airport is a hub for AirlineArgentinas, sister carrier Austral and LAN. Since 2000 the airport isoperated by Aeropuetos Argentinas. Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportalso serves some international flightsin theneighbouring countriesincluding Brazil, Chile, andParaguay among others. Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery’s locationis fifteen minutes(2 km) awayfrom downtownBuenos Aires makingitis easilyaccessed within a short time. Operatedby Aeropuertos Argentina 2000 S.A., Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery airport coversan areaof three hundred andforty-one acres.Apartfrom servingthe public,Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportalsoserves the militarywith theArgentine Air Force stationhavingits locationon theeastern endof theairport.The presidential jet Tango 01 is kept under the watchful eyes of themilitary in the eastern end of the airport. Politicsand Terminals In1925, Mayor Carlos Noel initiallyproposed for the construction of Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery airport.Carlos proposalwas receivedmixed reactions as some of the experts highlighted zoning issuesbased on the feasibility studies conducted in the area(FernandesAnd Pacheco, 2002). Nonetheless, construction of the airport receivedsupport from key stakeholders, particularly the incumbent governmentand although construction did not commence until the late 1940s. AEPairport was formally inaugurated in October 17 1945 by the thenAeronautic Secretariat engineer Victor Acuna (Paul,1960). After its completion the AEP airport had a runaway of about1000 meters. Operations began in January 1948 and the airport servedas the main hub fo domestic flights from the capital and aninternational flights to neaighboruing states (BuenosAires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport, n.d).A few years later the runway was extended by 550 metres and in 1951the first terminal was completed. In 1960, Aeroparque-JorgeNewbery airportreceived further developmentwith theintroductionof anotherterminal and therunway expandedto 2070 meters((Paul,1960).Fives years later, a smallbase was constructed for theArgentine Airforce near theeastern end.Thetotal terminal area was further increasedto 30000m2 following an inaugurationof a newterminal for the national carrier,Aerolineas Argentinas. In 1998, Aeropuertos Argentina 2000 tookover theoperationsof Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportfollowing theprivatization of theairport (Lipovich,2008). In 2009, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportrunway receivedan extensionby 180 metres.In 2011 the III and IV terminal was expanded and developed so thatthe total runway area is about 35000m2(Anil, 1995). With thedevelopmentsof theterminals and the inaugurationin 2014, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airportmassively increasedthe passenger’scapacitytwofold(Doganis,2002). Beingthe first airportto passa ten million passengermark,Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery Airport is thebusiest airportin Argentina in relationto passengerstraffic,servingup to one-third of thescheduled air trafficin thenation.. Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery holdsthe stateofart facilities incorporating hightech features(Anil,1995). Thefacilities,from infrastructural designand alignment,allowthe airportto servepassengers effectivelyon a dailybasis.Thefriendly staff membersare wellequipped and experienced,makingAeroparque-JorgeNewbery an outstandingtransport mediain Buenos Aires (Anil, 1995).Economicandoperational challenges Likeanyother transport medium,Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery airporthas challenges.In agreementwith theavailablestatistics, theairporthas recordedsome accidents and incidents,including thedamageof Vickers Viscount CX-AQO in 1957. Thecausedby piloterror resultedin sixty-three deathsout of thehundred passengersand crewmemberson board.Statistics

Thetrafficstatistics showsvarying passengers and cargo movementsby Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery Airport from 2009 to 2013. In theyear2009, Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery servedup to a totalof 6449344 passengersand 13700metric tonsof cargo, with aircraft operationsamounting to 91676. Traffic significantly increased in 2010, with thenumber of passengersrising to 7558149andwhile cargoreached a record high 18945 metric tons (BuenosAires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport).Both passenger traffic and cargo volume continued to increase in thefollowing year. Traffic levels grew to 8250971 in 2011, 8849465 for2012 and9552504 in year2013. Thecontinued infrastructure developments enabled the airportto handlethe increasing traffic effectively,with theairlines operations also increasing (BuenosAires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery Airport).Among themajor airlines operatingin Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery includes

  • AerolineasArgentinas – Asuncion, Tucuman and seasonal services to Florianopolis

  • Andes LineasAeras – Puerto

  • Gol Transporters Aeros – Sao Paulo-Guarulhos

  • LADE – San Carlos de Bariloche

  • LAN Airlines – Santiago de Chile

  • LAN Argentina – Ushuaia, Salta, San Juan and seasonal services to Malargue

  • Macair Jet – Villa Maria

  • Sol Lineas Areas – Bahia Blanca, Mar del Plata and seasonal services to

  • TAM Airlines – Sao Paulo-Guarulhos

Question2EzeizaMinistro Pistarini International AirportAccessand population served Locatedapproximatelytwenty-one milessouthwest of Buenos Aires, EzeizaMinistroPistarini InternationalAirport is thelargest airportin Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires Ezeiza International Airport).EzeizaMinistroPistarini International Airport serveson an intercontinental basis,servingpassengers and cargo destined forEurope, North America, Asia, and Australia(Belobaba,2009).Basedo the degree of its operations and level of passengers and cargotraffic, EzeizaMinistroPistariniInternational Airport is themost significant airportin Buenos Aires. Ezeiza Airport is alsoArgentina’s largestinternational airportand serves 85% of passengersin the international traffic platform. EzeizaMinistroPistarini International Airport occupiesan areaof 3475 hectares and is managed by the Argentina 2000 S.A. (Lipovich,2008). Theeaseof access,mostlyby roadutilizing RiccheriHighway facilitatesmovement in and out of EzeizaMinistro Pistarini International Airport. Thepresenceof a nearby railwaystationand localbuses servingfrom thestationto theair port further facilitates movement (BuenosAires Ezeiza International Airport). Politicsand terminals In1945, thethen ministerof publicworks,Juan Pistarini placedthe corner stone for the EzeizaMinistroPistariniInternational Airport project(Paul,1960).Namedafter thethen general and politicianJuan Pistarini, Ezeiza Airport constructionbegan,with Argentine techniciansdesigning and erecting the airport.Ezeiza Airport constructionis to dateone of themajor projects undertakenduring thefive-year planof Juan Peron firstpresidency(Garffoglio, 2011). When Ezeiza Airport wasopened it became the third largest airportin theworld.Thefirst civil flight was recordedin 1946. Ezeiza Airport operateson three majorterminals,A, B andC. Terminal C wasinauguratedin 2011 andis mainlyusedby Aerolineas Argentinas, Alitalia andAir France (Pagani, 2011). With an areaof 28795 squaremeters,terminalB which was inaugurated in 2013 is primarilyusedby Aerolineas Argentinas andKLM. Thereare numerous airlines that operatefrom Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini International Airport Theairlines include

  • Aerolineas mainly operating on terminal C with the destinations including Barcelona, Carcas, Cordoba, Bogota, and Asuncion among others

  • KLM that uses terminal C and B, key destinations being Amsterdam, Santiago de Chile

  • Delta Airlines operate on terminal C serving Atlanta

  • Air France serves destination Montevideo, Paris-Charles de Gaulle utilizes terminal b and c

TerminalA isusedby multipleairlines andis one of thebusiest terminals.Airlinesthat use terminalA include

  • Aeromexicoserving to Mexico City

  • Air Europa – Madrid

  • Air Canada – Toronto-Pearson and Santiago de Chile

  • Avianca – Bogota

  • Avianca Costa Rica – Lima

  • Conviasa–Carcas

  • British Airways – London-Heathrow

  • Copa Airlines – Panama City

  • Cuban de Aviacion – Havana and Varadero and also Cayo Coco on a seasonal basis

  • Boliviana de Aviacion – Cochamba Santa Cruz de la Sierra-ViruViru and La Paz

  • Avianca Peru – Lima

  • LAN Airlines – Santiago de Chile and New York-JFK among other airlines serving diverse destinations including LAN Argentina, LAN Peru, Qatar Airways, TAM Airlines, and the list holds numerous airlines.

Cargocarriers also fly to and from EzeizaAirport todifferent destinations.Theairlines includeAir classfling to Montevideo, MasAir servingMexico City, Lufthansa Cargo flyingtoCampinas, Dakar andFrankfurt. Othercargo airlinesincludeMartinairCargo, UPS Airlines, LAN Cargo, Florida West International Airways,Cielos Airlines among others.

Economicand operational challenges

Justlike many other airports in different parts of the world, Ezeizaairport main challenges are the nasty incidents of accidents some ofwhich have claimed many lives. Some of the most salient accidentsinclude the 2003 disaster where CATA Airline encountered sometechnical difficulties son after takeoff from the runway(Cento,2009). In this accident five passengers lost their live as theaircraft was engulfed in raging flames.Currentsituationof a citywith two airports Efficientand adequate transport infrastructureis crucialto anyregion.Beingthe capital city anda centralbusinessin Argentina, Buenos Aires receivesa vastnumberof people.

Bothdomestic and international tourists tour ths city for varyingreasons, top on the list being, tourism, education,medicalattention,governmentservicesamong others (Podalsky, 2002). Theairportsare the gateway that supportsthe city and the nationat large.Thereare numerous factors that affect the current operations of the twoairports, these include:Improvedinfrastructure Asa meansof accessingthe airports,thegovernment hadto constructroads,facilitatethe installation electricityas a sourceof energyfor the airports and improve the standardsof securityin theregion (Anil,1995).Improvedinfrastructure means improved living standardsamong thepopulace surrounding the area.Thepopulace also benefitsimmensely from the developmentssuch as improvedinfrastructure suchas accessto electricityand communication infrastructureamong others (Martín-Cejas, 2002).Heightenedinvestments

Theproportion of passengers’ traffic and the level of cargo passingthrough the two airports has been increasing over the years. Themovement of people from different parts of the world who tourArgentina and Buenos Aires has led to social interactions that havegiven the city a new dimension and perspective about growth anddevelopment of the city (Barrosand Dieke, 2008).Such interaction sis also crucial as it brings investors cometogether,establishingconnections leadingto innovative establishments.Suchinvestors’ setsup businessesventuresin andoutside thecity,a conceptfacilitatedby theconvenienceof transportationenabledby theairports (Doganis,2002).Thebusinessesare epicenterofgrowthand developmentin thecity,andthe impactis not onlyfeltin thecity but nationwideas moreinvestors accessthe nationthrough thewell-established airports.Trade Heightenedinvestmentsfacilitate growthof commerce.Trade,theexchangeof goodsand services,has profoundeconomic effect.Theairports,at domesticlevel as wellas on the internationalbase take the tradeon an entirelynewlevel. Investors andclients,on an international platform,can easilyaccessBuenos Aires, thanksto presence of an efficientair transport (Socolow,1978).Thefact that AEP serve domestic clients while Ezeiza serve internationalpassengers has enabled efficient service provision.Improvedliving standards Theincreased level of investments and improved trade meansan improvedliving standardfor the people in theregion.Employmentis crucialfor the populacein improvingthe living standards.Thetwo airports have provided employment to many people(Paul,1960).Today many Argentines are employed in the railway and road systemthat links the two airports to the city. Theestablished venturesas a resultof easeof transportationand improved infrastructureare indirectjob createdby theairports.Tourism Tourismis one of themost important economic prospects for any state or region (Podalsky,2002). Through theexpansion and developmentof thetwo airports,has only increased the capacity of the two airpots but has alsoreduced the cost of travel. Peoplecan easilymovefrom one regionto theother by using air transportandthis movement has been faster and more convenient. Improved travelmeans increased income forBuenos Aires as wellas Argentina (Podalsky, 2002). Theincome generated from aspects linked to the airportisusedto improvetheconditionsof the cityby conducting important undertakingssuchas schoolsand medical facilitiesin thearea.Improvedforeign relations Asa majorcity and federal capitalof Argentina, Buenos Aires holdssomeof thevital government facilities.Accessto suchfacilitiesis essentialin thecreationof betterforeign relations,as officialsfrom foreignnationscan easilyvisit the facilities (Belobaba,2009).Strengthsand weaknessesof operatingthetwo airportsin thesame city

Thekey strength of Ezeiza Airport is pegged on the fact that themanagement has embarked on a massive specialization campaign that hasmeant that the airport has facilities that support internal flights.The operations at Ezeiza are customized to meet internationalstandards(Malighetti,Martini, Paleari, and Redondi, 2009).While Ezeiza handles international flights, Aeroparque-Jorge Newberyhas been able to concentrate on domestic travelers. This has ensuredan efferent flight flow with minimum hiccups. The main weaknessemanates from the fact that the two airports share resources, some ofwhich are limited. For example, there is only the same line ofelectricity meaning that operations will be crimpled incase of poweroutage or interruption in electricity supply. Buenos Aires, asa destinationas wellas a connectingpoint,is a well-established capitalcityof Argentina. Thecity holds resources and facilities capableof satisfyingthe massive trafficfrom thedomestic and international movements.Asa destination,thecity is a hub for varying activitiesranging from commerceto tourism and hospitality. Question3StrategyforBuenos Aires Asa city,Buenos Aires benefitssignificantly from theoperationsof thetwo airports.Thepoliciescurrently in placeoperateefficiently. Through privatization of theservices,lesserpolitical interferenceis felt.Assuch,strategiesin placeare mostlyas a resultof innovative andresearch oriented base.HoldingtheFederal Capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires containsforty-eight districtsandis alsoknownto be the22nd mostpopulated urbancentrein theworld,with a populationof about overfourteen million. Asa meansto maximize theeconomic benefits,Buenos Aires administrationcan implementstrategiesto improvethetourism.Thoughthe city providesa platformfor the cultural event,nightlife andrestaurants holding world cuisine,thecitycan incorporatestrategiesthat would improvethe current situation. The impactof intercontinental touristis not fullymaximized, as a resultof thedistancebetween theinternational airports,EzeizaMinistroPistarini International Airport andAeroparque-JorgeNewbery. Theprimary meansof connectionfrom thetwo airportsis by road.Sometimes, especially the rush hours road transport is not convenientfor movement of passenger to and fro the airports, bearing in mindtime schedule in air transport in usually followed stringently. Astrategyto improvethe connectionbetween thetwo airports,in additionto theexpress buses andshuttle services,can quicklyimpacton tourism. Itis possiblewhere theintercontinental visitorseasily access the domestic airport,carryingthem to differentdestinations.The slow connection between the airports and the city center hasslowed he movement of people which has enormous economic effects onthe economy of the capital and the nation at large. Anintroductionof airtransport connecting thetwo airportscan facilitatefor improved access and reduced costsin Buenos Aires as wellas reducingthe road traffic thatat timescause chaoticoccurrence.At instancesof arrivingat Aeroparque-Jorge Newbery in oddhours,youcan easilyfeel the lonelinessas mostpartsaredesertedwith onlya fewpresent.Assuch,theintroductionof directair connection operatingon a 24-hour basisis an excellentimprovement.

Theairport should expand its cargo handling capacity by constructing newcargo facilities. This is the only way that AEP will be a positionto compete favorable with rival airports in the region, especially inBrazil and Uruguay.

Atthe moment a new firm run by the Argentine government is buildinginroads into the market of pre and post flight travel in the capitalcity. This will provide cheap travel to and from AEP airport. Formany years he Buenos Aires airport have been poorly linked, with theonly available option for exhausted and heavy luggage carryingcustomers being the Tienda Leon’s buses. Passengers have had towait for many hours in long queues for very expensive cabs. The lackof similar passengers buses for passengers in Ezeiza airport hascompounded passengers movement whenever they arrive in the airport.There are plans to expand the bus services to the Ezeiza airport butbefore then passenger will have to do with the limited andinefficient modes of travel.

Launchedtwo months ago by state-owned Intercargo, a company in charge of thenational airports’ ground handling, the service known as ArBus hasbeen charging 20 pesos or less to passengers both with or withoutSUBE smart cards, and offering on board Wi Fi, air conditioning,security cameras and luggage storage in all units, which work from 6AM until midnight, and offer stops at the Obelisco, Retiro busstation, Belgrano, Puente Saavedra and Puente Pacífico.

Arecent survey has revealed the existence of connectivity problemsbetween the two airport in the capital and the city (Portes2014, p. 1).For example, passengers have to wait for many hours to get a way tothe city once they arive at the Ezeiza airport which has more than2000 flights in every monthe and more than 8 million passengers. Tomake the matter worse Ezeiza is further from the capital andpassengers must travel long distances. Today a tai costs about 400pesos from the Ezeiza airport to the central business district(Portes2014, p. 1). Even so based on the information given by the Intercargo’sdirector he new bus network is ot popular enough to be of significantimpact in the capital, but it is anticipated that in the next sixmonths the arbus company will be in a position to make travel bothcheaper and easier to and from the tow airports (Portes2014, p. 1).

SolvingMonopoly Quandary

Thetaxi drivers have monopolized the business of providing transportservices to passengers from Buenos Aires two airports to the extentthat any new player into the business in met with massive resistance. Transport nodes are regarded as one of the most lucrative stops forcab drivers in the capital city and airport passengers are loath tolook around for regular bus stops because bus services are deemed asuncomfortable (Portes2014, p. 1).The high demand for cabs in the airports has led to the emergence ofviolent cartels who illegally charge taxi drivers in exchange forallowing them to operate in the airport smoothly devoid of anyinconveniences. The arbus has been forced to practice some level ofdiplomacy to avert clashes with the cab drivers. These monopolistictendencies have inhibited new players in the market which has meantthat passengers have to pay higher fares and wait for hours to moveto and from the airports (Portes2014, p. 1).

Thegovernment should embark on a massive plan to expand Buenos Airesunderground train network into the AEP airport and construct arailway network to Ezaiza airport to make the two airports moreaccessible to passengers and make movement to and from the airportseasier and faster (Portes2014, p. 1).

TheArgentine government should make frantic efforts to remove thebarriers that have been erected by cabs cartel that has hampered newplayers to enter into the transport business. The lack of alternativehas subjected passengers to agony as they are coerced to wait formany hours to travel to the capital from the two airports and payexorbitant fares. Diluting the power of cartels that illegally chargetaxi drivers to access the airports can go a long way in lowering thetransport cost for passengers and encouraging new players into thetransport business in the airports (Portes2014, p. 1).In addition customers would be given a wide range of options andcompetition will invariably lower the bus fares and reduce thewaiting time.

Arecent survey indicated that, eight out of ten passengers into thetwo airports in Buenos Aires indicates that, if they had a cheaperalternative that would drop them at key distribution points in thecity centre and with minimum standards, they would gladly acceptit. This means that, the current transport system from AEP and Ezeizaairports is wanting and requires urgent transformation to makepassengers movement both convenient and cheap.

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