Adaptive Response

Adaptive Response




Scenario 1

Jennifer has anupper respiratory infection known as tonsillopharyngitis(pharyngitis). This is an inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils(Senok et al, 2009). She exhibits inflammatory syndrome of theoropharynx primarily caused by a virus and bacterial infectiontransmitted through the respiratory secretions as well as foodintake. The infection may perhaps be caused by bacterial pathogens ofwhich hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is the resultof the complication of pharyngitis. The infection has invaded thepharyngeal mucosa directly causing a local inflammatory response. Thevirus infection has also caused irritation of pharyngeal mucosasecondary to nasal secretions. The inflammation and infection of thetonsillar crypts instead of the tonsils themselves explains thecomplication in airway obstruction, decreased oral intake anddehydration.

Scenario 2

Jack has an allergiccontact dermatitis, an IV type hindered hypersensitivity, responsethat triggers a cell mediating reaction caused by haptens (chemicalmolecules). The chemical molecules have the physicochemicalcharacteristics that have enabled them to cross the stratum corneumof Jack’s skin. Consequently, they are part of antigen involvingtheir connection with epidermal proteins forming hapten-proteinconjugates. This demands them to be protein-reactive. Jack willlikely experience two stages. The first stage is the induction stagewhich primes and sensitizes the immune system for an allergicresponse and the second stage, elicitation stage, in which thisresponse is triggered. At the elicitation stage, the haptens diffusein the skin and are taken by skin cell that express happened peptidecomplexes. This results in inflammation effects of cytokines whichare potent inducers of endothelial adhesion molecules.

Scenario 3

Martha’s adaptiveresponse to stress is determined by environmental factors and herimmune system (Ramsey, 1982). Martha’s stress system receives andintegrates the limbic and neurosensory signals originating from thedistinct pathway. The activation of the stress system has resulted instressing syndromes. Adaptation to stress includes high levels ofthinking, alertness, arousal with reduced digestive function (Tosi,2005). Physical adaptation occurs to encourage a redirective use ofenergy. Therefore, both the nutrients and oxygen are directed to thecentral nervous system and another part of stressed sites where theyare demanded the most. A high rate of respiration, metabolism(lipolysis) and cardiovascular tone occur to facilitate theavailability of important substrate while the function that demandenergy such as digestion and immunity are suspended for a short time.

Mind map


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Ramsey, J.M., (1982). Basic pathophysiology: Modern stress and thedisease process. Menlo Par, C.A. (Ed.), Addison-Wesley, pp.30-73.

Senok, A. C., Ismaeel, A. Y., Al-Qashar, F .A., Agab, W. A.(2009).Pattern of upper respiratory tract infections and physicians`antibiotic prescribing practices in Bahrain: Medical principles andpractice. International journal of Kuwait University, Healthscience Centre, 18(3):170-4

Steinman, M.A., Landefeld, C. S, &amp Gonzales, R. (2003).Predictors of broadspectrum antibiotic prescribing for acuterespiratory tract infections in adult primary care. The journal ofAmerican medical association, 289:719–725.

Tosi, M.F., (2005). Innate immune responses to infection. Journalof Allergy and Clin. Immunol. 116, 241-249.